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Society & Culture

The China History Podcast

Updated 10 days ago

Society & Culture
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Since 2010, The China History Podcast, presented by Laszlo Montgomery presents over two hundred episodes of curated topics from China's antiquity to modern times.

Read more

Since 2010, The China History Podcast, presented by Laszlo Montgomery presents over two hundred episodes of curated topics from China's antiquity to modern times.

iTunes Ratings

604 Ratings
Average Ratings

Various topics of chinese history elucidated

By Henry9918 - Aug 12 2019
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Lazlo talks about events and people in chinese history that are often not well known to the western audience, and does so in an entertaining manner.

Laszlo’s Dry Humor

By MattieGrace - Jul 22 2019
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Information dense and unbiased. I absolutely enjoy Laszlo’s dry humor!

iTunes Ratings

604 Ratings
Average Ratings

Various topics of chinese history elucidated

By Henry9918 - Aug 12 2019
Read more
Lazlo talks about events and people in chinese history that are often not well known to the western audience, and does so in an entertaining manner.

Laszlo’s Dry Humor

By MattieGrace - Jul 22 2019
Read more
Information dense and unbiased. I absolutely enjoy Laszlo’s dry humor!
Cover image of The China History Podcast

The China History Podcast

Updated 10 days ago

Read more

Since 2010, The China History Podcast, presented by Laszlo Montgomery presents over two hundred episodes of curated topics from China's antiquity to modern times.

Rank #1: CHP-227-The Seven Great Singing Stars of Shanghai Part 2

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In this second part of the series Laszlo and special guest Spun Counterguy introduce Bai Hong, Bai Guang, Gong Qiuxia and Wu Yingyin.  These four superstars of that golden era of music and entertainment left behind a string of hits that still inspires feelings of reminiscence for those days gone by.  Yao Li, who sadly passed away recently on July 19, 2019 as well as Li Xianglan and Zhou Xuan will be covered in Part 3.

Jul 28 2019
26 mins

Rank #2: CHP-003 The Four Great Inventions

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Today we look at the Four Great Inventions, the 四大发明, that Lord Francis Bacon hailed as having done more than anything else to transform completely the modern world and mark it off from antiquity and the Middle Ages.  Today we examine the four great inventions of the compass, gunpowder, paper and printing. Terms used in continue reading >>

Jun 24 2010
29 mins

Rank #3: CHP-083-The Cultural Revolution Part 1

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By popular demand Laszlo begins to trace the history of the Cultural Revolution.  This week’s episode looks at the events leading up to the moment in 1966 when Mao called for the people to Bombard the Headquarters and to tear down the government. Terms used in this episode: Dazibao 大字报 Big Character Poster Paoda Silingbu continue reading >>

May 13 2012
35 mins

Rank #4: CHP-140-The History of Tea Part 1

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Laszlo is back with a new ten-part CHP series covering the history of tea from its mythical discovery clear through to the 20th century.  


Sanhuang Wudi 三皇五帝 The Three Sovereigns and Five Emperors

Wang Xufeng  王旭烽  One of China’s great writers and Tea Ambassadors

Mao Dun Prize  茅盾将  China’s answer to the Booker or Pulitzer Prizer

Charen Sanbu Qu  茶人三部曲 Trilogies of the Teamen, written by Wang Xufeng

Wang Laoshi  王老师  Respectful salutation, “Teacher Wang”

Yipian Shuye de Gushi  一片树叶的故事   The Story of a Leaf

Yuantou 源头 fountainhead, source

Li Yuan  李渊 Tang founder Tang Gaozu

Li Shimin  李世民 Son of Li Yuan and co-founder of the dynasty

Emperor Xuan  宣帝 Han Emperor Xuan

Wang Bao   王褒 Western Han individual involved in a contract for a servant

Wuyang  武阳  City on the Jiangxi-Fujian border, home of an ancient tea market

Jiangxi   江西 Province in eastern China

Nanchang  南昌 Capital of Jiangxi Province

Cha  茶  Tea

Jia  槚 a former character for tea

Tu   荼  ancient name for tea

Chuan   荈  a former character for tea

She   蔎  a former character for tea                

Ming  茗  a former character for tea

Lu Yu  陆羽  The tea saint, writer of the Cha Jing

Cha Jing  茶经   The Classic of Tea

Cha Sheng  茶圣  The Tea Saint, Lu Yu

Shen Nong  神农  The Divine Farmer, Shennong

Wugu Xiandi  五谷先帝The Emperor of the Five Grains, another nickname of Shen Nong

Shen Nong Bencao Jing  神农本草经  Shen Nong’s Materia Medica or Herbal

Baicha   白茶  White tea or plain boiled water

Cha Lin  茶林  Village in Hunan where Shen Nong died

Zhangjiajie   张家界  Beautiful scenic area in northwest Hunan

Ren   人  person

Liang Shiqiu   梁实秋   One of China's greatest lexicograpers of the 20th century. His 新實用漢英辭典 was my first and favorite dictionary going back to 1979.

Kucai   苦菜  Bitter vegetable

Shijing   诗经  The Book of Songs

Liji  礼记  The Book of Rites

Fujian  福建  Fujian province

Guangdong    广东  Guangdong province

Guangzhou   广州  Guangzhou, a.k.a Canton

Xiamen  厦门   Xiamen in Fujian

Fuzhou   福州  Fuzhou or Foochow as it was once called

Quanzhou  泉州  Coastal port city in Fujian

Shuowen Jiezi  说文解字  Han Dynasty Dictionary 

Cun 村 Village

Chan Buddhism  禪  Zen Buddhism

Zhou Xin 紂辛  Di Xin, 帝辛, Infamous last king of the Shang Dynasty                 

Jiuchi Roulin   酒池肉林  The Wine Pool and Meat Forest.

Chengdu   成都  Capital of Sichuan

Gan Lu Cha  甘露茶  Sweet Dew Tea, the famous tea of Mengding Shan.

Wu Lizhen  吴里真 Buddhist Monk credited with the cultivation of tea on Mengding Shan.

Mengding Shan  蒙顶山 Mountain in Sichuan where tea cultivation began in China

Xian Cha   仙茶  The Tea of the Immortals, a.k.a. Gan Lu Tea from the seven original trees

Ya’an  雅安  City outside Chengdu famous for tea

Qionglai  邛崃   City outside Chengdu famous for tea

Sanguo Zhi  三国志  Record of the Three Kingdoms

Sun Hao  孙浩  Eastern Wu king known for his drunkeness

Wei Yao   Loyal official to Sun Hao

Sima Yan  司马炎   (also known as 晋武帝) Jin Dynasty founder

Jin  晋朝  The Jin Dynasty

Shang-Zhou-Han   商周汉  The three dynasties of Shang-Zhou Han

Luoyang  洛阳   One of China’s ancient capitals

Chang’an  长安  One of China’s ancient capitals  (present day Xian)

Qin Shihuang  秦始皇  Qin dynasty founder

Er Ya  尔雅  The first dictionary in China

Guangya   广雅  An updated version of the Er Ya

Longjing  龙井  Village outside Hangzhou famous for Longjing, Dragon Well tea

Shu Guo  蜀国  The kingdom of Shu, present day Sichuan

Sanxingdui  三星堆  Neolithic ruins discovered outside Chengdu

Ba Shu   巴蜀  Ancient state from the Shu Kingdom

Zhou King Wu    周武王  Brother of the Duke of Zhou, conquering king.

Haojing   镐京   Western Zhou Capital

Ying Zheng  嬴政  The future Qin Shihuang

Han Wudi  汉武帝  The great martial emperor of the Western Han

Liu Song   刘宋  1st dynasty in the south during the Nanbei Chao, 420-479

Wucheng  婺城 District of Jinhua in Zhejiang, Province.

Nanbei Chao  南北朝  The Northern and Southern Dynasties

Zhuge Liang  诸葛亮  Great strategist and statesman of the 3 Kingdoms period

Yang Jian  杨暕 Second Sui emperor and grandson of founder Wendi.

Sui Wendi  隋文帝  Founder of the Sui Dynasty

Taishan   台山  City in southern Guangdong, southwest of Jiangmen.



Link to CCTV Documentary THE STORY OF A LEAF

Nov 21 2014
48 mins

Rank #5: CHP-119-The Chinese Civil War Part 1

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In this week’s episode we begin a multi-part series covering the Chinese Civil War from 1945 to 1949.  In China this is known as the War of Liberation.  In this Part 1 we will look at the background leading up to the war as well as failed attempts by the Americans in 1945-1946 to continue reading >>
Jun 10 2013
47 mins

Rank #6: CHP-197-The History of China-Vietnam Relations Part 1

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In this first of a multipart series, Laszlo explores the ancient relationship between China and Vietnam. In this episode, the earliest days going back to Zhao Tuo and the Nanyue Kingdom are discussed. A thousand apologies for the poor editing job splicing the Vietnamese pronunciation. I'm hoping for an A for effort at least. The remaining episodes will go off more smoothly. Thank you for your understanding.

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Mar 20 2018
39 mins

Rank #7: CHP-203-The History of Chinese Martial Arts, Wing Chun and Ip Man Part 1

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Don't be fooled by the title. Wing Chin and Ip Man will be covered next episode. Today's the first in a two part series that offers up a survey of the development of martial arts in China from the mythical times of the Yellow Emperor to the present day. Let's look at the China history timeline once more, with feeling, and see how these martial arts embraced by millions and millions around the world slowly developed through the centuries. This will serve as the setup to next episode when we zero in on one particular style of martial arts and one of its best known masters.

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Jun 16 2018
55 mins

Rank #8: CHP-218-The History of Tang Poetry Part 1

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In this first of a series introducing the history of the development of Chinese poetry, Laszlo focuses on the two most important works from Pre-Qin China.  These were the Classic of Poetry and the Songs of Chu. Though we will not get to the Tang Dynasty in this episode, we'll look at what came prior and how each new style impacted newer emerging styles of poetry. The life of Qu Yuan and Chu Kingdom will also be introduced.

Mar 24 2019
25 mins

Rank #9: CHP-226-The Seven Great Singing Stars of Shanghai Part 1

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In this latest CHP installment Laszlo finally gets around to introducing The Seven Great Singing Stars of old Shanghai whose performing skills on the silver screen and on 78 records provide us with a nostalgic glimpse of long gone and controversial era. In this Part 1 episode we will focus on the one who made it all possible, the talented Li Jinhui. Mr. Spun Counterguy from the "In the Corner Back By the Woodpile" podcast joins Laszlo to assist in telling this story.  Next time in Part 2 we'll look at the first four of these Seven Great Singing Stars of 1930's and 40's Shanghai.

Jul 15 2019
31 mins

Rank #10: CHP-001 Introductory Episode

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A warm welcome to everyone across the world and thank you for listening to the introductory episode of the China History Podcast.  Each week we will bring you a different topic taken from the annals of 5,000 years of Chinese history. We’ll look at the dynasties, historical persons, ancient history, modern history and everything in continue reading >>

Jun 09 2010
3 mins

Rank #11: CHP-216-The History of the Hokkien People Part 1

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We're back in ancient times once again, this time looking at the homeland of the Hokkien people. As we've done with other groups of Southern Chinese (Teochew, Toi San, Hakka) this time Laszlo provides a broad overview of the people from the south of Fujian Province, the Hokkien or Hoklo people.  Before we get into the Qing era diaspora, Laszlo focuses on how Fujian developed from a land populated by Yuè people to a part of Han Dynasty China with a focus on the Minyue Kingdom.

Feb 26 2019
24 mins

Rank #12: CHP-101-The History of Hong Kong Part 1

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Laszlo is back after another long delay.  In this shorter than usual episode, The China History Podcast presents Part 1 of a multi-part series that will explore the history of Hong Kong. In this introductory episode, Laszlo starts at the very beginning and traces Hong Kong from the Devonian Period all the way up the continue reading >>
Oct 13 2012
25 mins

Rank #13: CHP-050 Daoism Part 1

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In this week’s episode Laszlo tackles Daoism, a philosophy, a religion and way of life that everyone has heard about but not everyone learned the backstory.  This time we look at the history and the times that spawned this most fertile of philosophies. In later episodes we’ll dig a little deeper and look more at continue reading >>

Jul 20 2011
32 mins

Rank #14: CHP-161-Zhou Enlai Part 1

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In today's Part 1 episode Laszlo explores the early life of Zhou Enlai, growing up in a traditional scholar-official's family that had seen better days. Zhou gets passed from relative to relative. But each step of the way there were mentors and breaks that he was able to make the most of. We can see through his early years and into his teens how Zhou was perfectly trained and tested for the larger job that lay ahead.

CHP-161-Zhou Enlai Part 1 Terms

Zhou Enlai 周恩来 1898-1976

Jung Chang 张荣 British Chinese author famous for her critical biography of Mao Zedong and her book Wild Swans

Zhou zongli 周总理 Premier Zhou

Liu Shaoqi 刘少奇 One-time top Chinese leader, hounded to death during the Cultural Revolution

Lin Biao 林彪 Great military leader, later Mao's successor but not for long.

Wang Hongwen 王洪文 One of the Gang of Four and Mao's appointed successor but not for long.

Hua Guofeng 华国锋   Succeeded Mao in 1976 as Chairman of the Party

Deng Xiaoping 邓小平   Featured in CHP episodes 63-70

Huái'ān 淮安   City in northern Jiangsu province

Jiangsu 江苏   Province just north of Zhejiang

Shaoxing 绍兴   Historic city in Zhejiang, just west of Shanghai

Tianjin 天津 City in the north, just east of Beijing

Song Meiling 宋美龄   Madame Chiang Kai-shek

Zhou Panlong   周攀龙 Zhou Enlai's paternal grandfather

Zhou Yineng 周貽能 Zhou Enlai's father

Wan Dong'er 万冬儿 Zhou Enlai's natural mother

Lady Chen 陈氏 Zhou's 养母 or adoptive mother

Jiang Zhou's nurse who took care of him

Zhou Yigan 周贻淦 Zhou's uncle (younger brother of father)

shushu 叔叔 Uncle (younger brother of father)

didi 弟弟   Younger brother

muqin 母亲   Mother

ganma 干妈   Adoptive mother

waigong 外公   grandfather (father of one's mother)

Zhou Yiqian 周贻谦 Zhou's uncle (elder brother of father)

bofu 伯父   Uncle (elder brother of father)

Zhou Yigeng Uncle of Zhou Enlai who got led him to Tianjin

Zou Rong   邹容 Early revolutionary writer

Gemingjun 革命军 Revolutionary Army, Zou Rong's great work.

Kang Youwei 康有为   Reformer in the late 19th century

Liang Qichao 梁启超   Student of Kang Youwei who participated in the 100 Days of Reform

Nankai Middle School 天津南开中学

Yan Xiu 严修 Co-founder of Nankai Middle School

Zhang Boling 張伯苓 co-founder and president of Nankai

Jing Ye 敬业   Respect Work, Zhou Enlai's first journal

Xiao Feng 校风 School Wind School newspaper of Nankai

Chen Duxiu   陈独秀 Communist Party co-founder and writer

Xin Qingnian   新青年 Chen Duxiu's New Youth Magazine

Tianjin Xuesheng Lianhe Huibao 天津学生联合会包  Tianjin Student Union

Juewushe 觉悟社 Awakening Society

Deng Yingchao 邓颖超 Among other accomplishments, wife of Zhou Enlai

Yang Zhen Deng Yingchao's mother

Liu Qingyang 刘清扬 Early Communist Party member

Zhang Shenfu 张申府 Married to Liu Qingyang, another early Party operative

Li Dazhao 李大钊   CCP co-founder and librarian at Peking U

Guomintang 国民党 The KMT or Kuomintang

Li Fuchun 李富春 Longtime party leader, chairman of State Planning Commission

Nie Rongzhen 聂荣臻   Great military leader and called Father of China's Atomic Bomb

Zhu De 朱德   Red Army founder, great military leader

Chi Guang 赤光 Red Light, the journal printed in France

Guofu   国父 The Father of the Country (Sun Yat-sen)

Whampoa Military Academy 陆军官校 Funded and established by Soviets to train Chinese officers

Ye Jianying 叶剑英   Great military man and CCP stalwart

Chen Jiongming   陈炯明 Landlord in Guangdong, the target of the Eastern Campaign

Taiping Guan 太平馆 Restaurant in Guangzhou where Zhou and Deng Yingchao had a wedding reception.

Beijing Lu 北京路   Beijing Road

Zhongshan Gunboat Incident 中山舰事件 March 20, 1926, an incident that provoked a crackdown by Chiang Kai-shek against left leaning elements in the KMT as all Communists.

Go check out:

Nina Xiang's China Money Podcast

The Anthill - A Writer's Colony

The Sinica Podcast, a classic

Nov 05 2015
46 mins

Rank #15: CHP-004 The Great Leap Forward

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The Great Leap Forward ( 大跃进) from 1958-1960 caused death and suffering to dozens of millions of people. It sounded like a workable idea but it didn’t turn out like Chairman Mao hoped. When looking back on the life of Mao Zedong, the Great Leap Forward is always viewed as a black mark against his legacy. I welcome you to listen to the podcast and learn all about what happens when central planning goes awry.


Dàyùejìn   大跃进 The Great Leap Forward

Rénmín Gōngshè   人民公社 People's Communes

Nánníng   南宁 Capital city of Guangxi Province

Guǎngxī province 广西    Southern province in China

Chéngdū 成都 Capital of Sichuan province

Xiàn 县 county

Liú Shàoqí 刘少奇    High-ranking government/Party leader, Mao's chief target during Cultural Revolution

Tián Jiāyīng 田家英 Secretary to Chairman Mao

Dèng Xiǎopíng 邓小平  Great Chinese leader

Zhōu Ēnlái 周恩来 Premier of China 1949-1976

Chén Yūn   陈云 Chinese leader mainly in charge of the economy

Chén Yì 陈毅 Chinese military leader and former Shanghai mayor and foreign minister

Duō liànhǎo gāng, jiāsù Shèhuìzhûyì jiànshè! 多临钢加速社会主义建设 Make more steel, increase the speed of building Socialism!

Shēngchǎn duì 生产队 Production Team

Shēngchǎn dàduì   生产大队 Production Brigade

nóngmín   农民 peasantry

Sānnián dà jīhuǎng   三年大饥荒   Three Year Big Famine

Sānnián zìrán zāi hài   三年自然灾害 Three Years of Natural Disasters.

Yáng Jìshéng 楊繼繩 Chinese author of the book on the Great Leap "Tombstone"

Lúshān Conference 庐山会议 Conference held in July 1959 to discuss the Great Leap

Péng Déhuái   彭德怀    Civil War hero and first defense minister

Sháoshān   韶山 Birthplace of Mao Zedong

Jiāngxī province 江西  Province in the southeast

Xiāngtán   湘潭   Large city in Hunan

Jǐnggāngshān 井冈山   Mountainous area in Jiangxi where Mao set up his first base of operations in the 1930's

Tā gǎn shuō huà   他敢说话 he dared to speak up

Lín Biāo   林彪 Defense minister after Peng Dehuai

Jun 30 2010
34 mins

Rank #16: CHP-153-The History of Opium in China

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In this episode Laszlo examines remarks made by distinguished UCLA Professor of Public Policy Mark Kleiman who had commented on Britain's participation in the Opium War.  The main point was that the cause of the Opium War was due more to protecting imperial tax revenues and the domestic market than trying to stamp out the opium problem. Opium's history in China began centuries before, at least during the Tang and maybe as far back as the Eastern Jin.  The focus of this episode is on opium's history in China prior to the Opium War.


lao pengyou  老朋友   Old friends.

Xia Dynasty  夏朝

Shang Dynasty  商朝

Eastern Zhou  东周

Eastern Jin   东晋

Nanfang Caomu Zhuang  南方草木装  Western Jin Scholar Ji Han (嵇含)

A Fu Rong 阿芙蓉  Ancient name for opium

A Fei Rong 阿肥蓉   Another name for opium

He Fu Rong 合甫融  Another name for opium

Yapian   鸦片Opium from the Arabic / Persian work afyun

Jiu Tang Shu  旧唐书  The Old Book of Tang

Chen Cangqi’s Bencao Shiyi  陈藏器,本草拾遗   the Supplement to the Materia Medica

Tang Xuanzong  唐玄宗  Tang emperor on duty when the dynasty peaked a second time.

Southern Song  南宋 

Ying Su 罂粟poppy

Su Dongpo    苏东坡  a.k.a. Su Shi  苏轼

Xu Boling  徐伯龄 Wrote in 1483 about opium’s use in China as an aphrodisiac

Siku Quanshu  四库全书  The Complete Library of the Four Treasures

Qianlong 乾隆帝  The long reigning Qianlong emperor

Yongle Emperor   永乐大典  Yongle Encyclopedia

Xie Zhaozhe  谢肇淛 lived in late 16th – early 17th century Ming Dynasty China was a prolific writer of books

Ming Chenghua  明成化  Ming emperor

chunyao  春药  aphrodisiac

Li Shízhēn 李時珍 Compendium of Materia Medica, the Bencao Gangmu 本草纲目 - 1578

Tainan  台南  City on south coast of Taiwan

Madak  玛达克  Mixture of opium and tobacco

Ming Chongzhen  明崇祯  Final Ming emperor, committed suicide when the dynasty fell

Wan Li Emperor 明万历  Ming emperor

Shisan Ling   十三陵  the Thirteen Ming Tombs just north of Beijing

Dingling  定陵  The Wanli Emperor's Tomb, excavated in 1956

Lady Zheng  郑贵妃  Wanli Emperor’s favorite consort

Kangxi emperor  康熙  Great and long reigning Qing emperor

Yongzheng Emperor   雍正  Successor to the Kangxi emperor

Jiajing Emperor  嘉靖  Qing emperor who followed the Qianlong emperor

Daoguang emperor  道光   Qing emperor who was on duty when the roof caved in on China

da Tu   大土  Patna opium (big soil)

xiao tu   小土  Malwa opium (马尔瓦鸦片) (small soil)

gong tu   公土   Another name for Malwa opium common soil.

Lin Zexu  林则徐  Chinese hero who stood up to Britain

Zhang Changjia  张昌甲 wrote a book in 1878 called “Opium Talk”, Yan Hua. 

Pu Yi  溥仪  The last Qing emperor

Empress Wanrong  婉容皇后  Empress of China’s last emperor Pu Yi

Chen Chong  陈冲  Joan Chen

Du Yuesheng   杜月笙  Big-Ears Tu

Yapian Guan   鸦片馆  An opium house

Yan Guan   烟馆  An opium house

Ying chou   迎抽 A welcome smoke offered a gues upon arriving at your house

Shen Nong  神农  

Lu Yu   陆羽  

ChineseSkill: Find it at

Download the free APP and start learning to speak Mandarin like the Pro's!

For more on opium and eroticism in Chinese literature:

Keith McMahon

Professor, Chinese Language and Literature East Asian Languages and Cultures University of Kansas 

Peter Lee's Opium Culture amazon link

Narcotic Culture - A History of Drugs in China

Apr 27 2015
40 mins

Rank #17: CHP-184-The History of Chinese Philosophy Part 1

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After the longest break in the action since 2001, The CHP is back with this pleasant little 9-Part overview covering the history of Chinese philosophy. The series will run from pre-Confucian times clear through to Wang Yangming in the mid Ming Dynasty, a period stretching for more than two thousand years. And don't forget to download the free Infographic that will accompany the series. I predict it will do wonders in keeping all the names, dates, philosophies and texts straight. Thanks for your patience! I hope you enjoy the series.

Nov 10 2017
39 mins

Rank #18: CHP-128-The History of American Chinese Cuisine

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After a record-breaking pause in the action Laszlo is back with one last episode to finish off 2013.  This time we look at the interesting and amusing history of Chinese cuisine in America, an oft requested topic here at the China History Podcast.  This is a history that goes hand in hand with the earliest Chinese immigration to the US.  If you’re interested to learn more on the subject check out Andrew Coe and Jennifer 8 Lee’s books.  The links to amazon are below:

Andrew Coe – “Chop Suey”

Jennifer 8. Lee – “The Fortune Cookie Chronicles”

Dec 30 2013
45 mins

Rank #19: CHP-169-The Mongol Yuan Dynasty Part 1

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In this long overdue episode with a deceiving title we don't actually get around to the Yuan Dynasty.  However a nice handy and confusing overview tracing the rise of the Mongol nation is presented which includes a bio on Genghis Khan.  We'll get to rise of Kublai Khan this time and look at the Yuan Dynasty next episode.  

Terms from this Episode

numero ciento sesenta y nueve Number 169

Qin Shihuang 秦始皇 Qin Dynasty founder

Da Yuanchao 大元朝 The Great Mongol Dynasty

Parthians 帕提亚  Iranian nomadic people

Scythians   斯基泰人 Iranian nomadic people

Yuezhi 月氏 Originally from Xinjiang and Gansu, defeated by the Xiongnu

Goths 哥特 West central Asian power, the scourge of the Roman Empire

Magyars   马扎儿人 West central Asian power. Today they are known as Hungarians.

Huns 匈奴 More from the western part of the steppe, often confused with Xiongnu

Xiongnu 匈奴 Often called Huns, they were an early northern tribe who kept invading China

Slavs   斯拉夫人 People from central Europe and the West Asian steppe

Xianbei 鲜卑   So-called "proto-Mongols" who lived around the Qin and Han dynasties and founded the Northern Wei.

Shatuo Turks  沙陀突厥  Power in north China late 9th and 10th century. Founded several short-lived dynasties in the north of China.

Khitans 契丹 The people who founded the Liao Dynasty 907-1125

Tatars 鞑靼人 Mongol tribe defeated by Genghis Khan who later moved westward towards Russia and Europe

Kazakhs   哈萨克人 North-Central Asian people, Turkic, found mostly in Kazakhstan and Uzbekistan

Kyrgyz  吉尔吉斯  Central Asian people, Turkic, found mostly in Kyrgyzstan

Uighurs   维吾尔人   Turkic people who today mostly live in Xinjiang

The Hakkas 客家人 The Hakka People

Fujian 福建   Province on the east coast of China

Huizong   徽宗 Last emperor of the Northern Song

Aguda 阿骨打 Also known as Emperor Taizu of Jin, founder of the Jin Dynasty

Wuqimai 吴乞买 Aguda's brother, second emperor of the Jin

Kaifeng 开封 Capital of the Northern Song Dynasty

Jin Dynasty  金朝 Jürchen Dynasty 1115-1234, founded by Aguda

Zhao Gou   赵构 Escaped Zhao royal family member, launched Southern Song

Gaozong 高宗 First emperor of the Southern Song Dynasty

Lin'an 临安 Southern Song capital, present day Hangzhou

Merkits  蔑儿乞人 One of many tribes of the Mongols

Keraits  怯烈亦 One of many tribes of the Mongols

Ongüts  汪古部 One of many tribes of the Mongols

Ongirats  One of many tribes of the Mongols

Naimans 乃蛮 One of many tribes of the Mongols

Temüjin 铁木真 Genghis Khan's name

Dobun Known as Dobun the Clever, married to Alan the Fair, early ancestors of Temujin

Ah-Lan the Fair married to Dobun, early ancestors of Temujin

Khaidu 海都 c. 1040-1100 Great-grandfather of Khabul Khan

Khabul Khan  合不勒  Early great khan and great -grandfather of Genghis Khan

Yesugei the Brave 孛儿只斤Ÿ也速该 Father of Genghis Khan

Yuanchao Mi Shi 元朝秘史 The Secret History of the Mongols

Börte 孛儿帖 Wife of Temüjin and later Grand Empress of the Mongol Empire

Ulaan Bator 乌兰巴托 Capital of Mongolia

Jochi 术赤 Oldest son of Börte and maybe Genghis Khan

Golden Horde 金帐汗国  Originally the northwest portion of the Mongol Empire. Also known as the Kipchak Khanate. Lasted till 1502.

Xinjiang   新疆 Northwest autonomous region in China

Mongol Yasa (Jasagh)   A Mongol Codified law introduced by Genghis Khan

Khuriltai 忽里勒台   A Mongol congress of all elders and leaders

Kara Khitai 喀喇契丹 Also known as the Western Liao 1124-1218

Xixia  西夏 The Western Xia, an empire established by the Tanguts

Khwarizmian Empire 花剌子模王国 Lasted 1077-1231. Khwarazmia covered All of Iran and parts of Afghanistan, Turkmenistan, Uzbekistan, Tajikistan.

Batu 拔都 Founder of Golden Horde, son of Jochi, grandson of Genghis Khan

Chaghadai 蔡合台 Second son of Genghis Khan, founder of Khanate of Chaghadai

Khanate of Chaghadai 蔡合台汗国 Covered most of Central Asia

Ogedai Khan 窝阔台 or 斡歌歹 Third son of Genghis Khan, second Khan of the Mongol Empire

Tolui 拖雷 Fourth Son of Genghis Khan, father of Kublai Khan

Möngke 蒙哥 Eldest son of Tolui, elder brother to Kublai Khan

Kublai 忽必烈 1215-1294, Great Khan and founder of the Yuan Dynasty. Reigned 1271-1294.

Hulagu 旭烈兀 grandson of Genghis Khan, son of Tolui

Arigh Boke 阿里不哥 Youngest son of Tolui, fought civil war with Kublai

Subotei 速不台 Genghis Khan's number one guy (and Ogedai's too!). Great Mongol general.

Dzungaria 准噶尔 Northern half of Xinjiang with Tianshan Mountains south and the Altai north.

Karakorum 喀喇昆仑 Mongol capital 1235-1260

Guyuk 贵由 Eldest son of Ogedai Khan, reigned only two years as the 3rd Great Khan

Mamluks 马木留克 Originally slave soldiers, they were a powerful "caste" of warriors who operated from the 9th to 19th centuries. Not to be messed with.

Il-khanate 伊儿汗国  The southwestern portion of the Mongol Empire. Ruled by Hülagü's branch of the family - centered around Iran

Dali Kingdom 大理国 Kingdom that lasted 937-1253. Mostly located in Yunnan.

Owen Lattimore 欧文Ÿ拉铁摩尔 American scholar and Central Asian specialist

Isaac Meyer:  “History of Japan Podcast”

Nina Xiang: "China Money Network"

May 23 2016
45 mins

Rank #20: CHP-182-The Nanjing Massacre Part 1

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By popular demand Laszlo finally introduces the Nanjing Massacre.  This is a very emotional, controversial and sensitive subject for a whole lot of reasons.  Over the next two episodes Laszlo will review material from past episodes to discuss the lead-up to the Massacre. Then in Part 2 the actual event itself as well as the story of the Nanjing Safety Zone and some of the foreigners who became eyewitnesses to the horrors of the Nanjing Massacre.  It's also referred to as the Nanking Massacre and the Rape of Nanking.


Rape of Nanking Nánjīng Dà Túshā 南京大屠杀 (Japanese 南京大虐杀) Also referred to as the Nanjing (Nanking) Massacre.

Zēng Guófán 曾国藩  1811-1872 Viceroy of Zhili, founder of the Xiang Army that helped put down the Taiping Rebellion.

Zhào Qīzhèng 赵启正  PRC official who has mostly been associated with news organizations.

Kublai Khan 忽必烈 Yuan Dynasty founder and grandson of Chinggiz Khan

Zhāng Chúnrú 张纯如 Iris Chang 1968-2004, American writer.

Honda Katsuichi 本多勝 Japanese journalist and writer who wrote extensively on the Rape of Nanking.

Revere the Emperor, Expel the Barbarian (Japanese 攘夷勅命 Sonnō Jōi)

Zūnwáng Rǎngyí 尊王攘夷 The Mandarin version of the above phrase.

Lǐ Hóngzhāng 李鸿章 1823-1901 Successor to Zeng Guofan, top late Qing era diplomat

Treaty of Shimonoseki 下关条约 Signed 1895 at conclusion of 1st Sino-Japanese war

Zhāng Zuòlín 张作霖 Warlord of Manchuria from 1922 - 1928.

Prime Minister Hamaguchi Osachi 濱口雄幸 Japanese Prime Minister 1929-1931

Jiǔyībā  九一八 The Mukden Incident of September 18, 1931

Manchukuo (Mǎnzhōuguó) 满洲国 Lasted from 1932 to 1945. Puppet state in Manchuria

Pǔ Yí 溥仪 The last Qing Emperor, also known as the Xuantong 宣统帝Emperor. Emperor of Manchukuo.

Prime Minister Inukai Tsuyoshi 犬養毅 Japanese prime Minster from 1931-1932.

Héběi 河北 Northern province of China, where Beijing and Tianjin are geographically located.

Shānxī 山西 Northern Province of China, capital at Taiyuan

Shāndōng 山东 Coastal northern province

Tiānjìn 天津 Northern city in China just east of Beijing

Lúshān 庐山 Mountain resort in Jiangxi popular with Nationalist and Communist leaders as a meeting place.

Jiāngxī 江西 Province in China, capital at Nanchang

Zhōu Dynasty 周朝  Ancient dynasty of China

Bái Chóngxǐ 白崇禧  NRA general, close ally to Li Zongren

Lǐ Zōngrén 李宗仁 Major military and political figure during the 1920's and 30's. Had a stormy relationship with Chiang Kai-shek.

Chóngqìng 重庆 City in Sichuan province, now a stand-alone municipality

Wǔhàn 武汉 City in Hubei on the Yangzi River

Lǎobǎixìng 老百姓 The people, in this case the Chinese people, (the old 100 surnames).

Jiāng-Zhè  江浙区 region Abbreviation for the Jiangsu-Zhejiang region

Yamaguchi Tsutomu 山口 彊 1916-2010 A survivor of both the Hiroshima and Nagasaki atomic bombings August 6 and 9, 1945.

Nánchāng 南昌 Capital city of Jiangxi province

Táng Shēngzhì  唐生智   Nationalist general who was tasked with defending Nanjing

Sūn Quán  孙权 Three Kingdoms era leader of the State of Sun Wu.

Matsui Iwane 松井石根  Imperial Japanese Army Commander-in-chief for the Shanghai-Nanjing Region

Nakajima Kesago 中岛今朝吾  Lt. Gen. in the Imperial Japanese Army

Yanagawa Heisuke 柳川平助 General in the Imperial Japanese Army

Sūzhōu 苏州 City in Jiangsu province renowned for a thousand things

Emperor Hirohito (Emperor Showa 昭和天皇) Emperor of Japan 1926-1989

Prince Asaka Yasuhiko 朝香宮鳩彦王 1887-1981 General in the Imperial Japanese Army, uncle of Emperor Hirohito.

Ānhuī 安徽   Province in central China


Iris Chang, "The Rape of Nanking - The Forgotten Holocaust if World War II"

"The Good German of Nanking - The Diaries of John Rabe"

Jay Taylor, "The Generalissimo: Chiang Kai-shek and the Struggle for Modern China"

Rana Mitter, "Forgotten Ally: China's World War II 1937-1945"

Honda Katsuichi, "The Nanjing Massacre: A Japanese Journalist Confronts Japan's National Shame"

Sinica Podcast April 7, 2015 with Lucy Hornby "Comfort Women and the struggle for reparations"

Isaac Meyer's excellent History of Japan Podcast

YouTube link to the Nanking movie mentioned in CHP-183 Nanjing Massacre Part 2

May 11 2017
45 mins

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