The Compass - exploring our world.
We take your questions about life, Earth and the universe to researchers hunting for answers at the frontiers of knowledge.
Rank #1: Is maths real?.
Faced with one cake and eight hungry people, it’s pretty obvious how maths underpins reality. But as mathematics gets further from common sense and into seemingly abstract territory, nature still seems to obey its rules - whether in the orbit of a planet, the number of petals on a flower, or the structure of an atom. But what exactly is the relationship between mathematics and reality? That’s the impossibly difficult question CrowdScience has been set this week by our listener Sergio in Peru. It’s one that’s been pondered by humans for millennia: the Greek philosopher Pythagoras believed “All is number”. Is maths a human construct to help us make sense of reality - a tool, a model, a language? Does maths create its own reality? Or is it reality itself?CrowdScience explores these questions with the help of experts from the fields of philosophy, mathematics and science: Dr Eleanor Knox, Dr Eugenia Cheng, Professor Lucie Green, Alex Bellos and Stefano Centineo. Presenter: Marnie ChestertonProduced by Cathy Edwards for the BBC World Service(Photo: A young woman with her eyes closed standing in front of chalkboard, working out maths formulas. Credit: Getty Images)
Rank #2: The Fourth Dimension.
How would a fourth dimensional being appear to humans?"It would look just weird" is one way to answer the question 'How would a fourth dimensional being appear to humans?' But it's more complicated than that - theoretical cosmologist Andrew Pontzen describes how objects are viewed from one dimension to another, and how it might affect parking spaces. Also on the programme: our panel of experts discuss bubble experiments, a theory that the Black Death was a virus, space elevators, algae as a biomass fuel, what affects the speed of digestion in our gut, a short definition of dark energy and the question is it true our DNA has alien properties?With Helen Czerski, department of mechanical engineering, University College London; virologist Jonathan Ball, University of Nottingham; and cosmologist Andrew Pontzen, University College London.Do you have a question we can turn into a programme? Email us at email@example.com.(Image: Stripes and points of light, one guess what a 4th dimension might look like, Credit: Thinkstock)
Brilliant solutions to the world’s problems. We meet people with ideas to make the world a better place and investigate whether they work.
Rank #1: Does Universal Basic Income Work?.
Around the world, governments and researchers are experimenting with the introduction of universal basic income. From Finland and Spain to India, the idea of giving every citizen – whether working or not – a set amount of money per month is gaining momentum. It’s claimed to be a fairer and more efficient way of running a welfare system, but we’re only just starting to understand what actually happens when you introduce a basic income for everyone. We look at the evidence and try to establish whether it is an idea whose time has come. Presenter: Mukul DevichandReporter: Sam JudahProducer: Jo MathysImage: An Indian man counts currency / Credit: Sajjad Hussain / AFP / Getty Images
Rank #2: The future of freight.
Billions of tonnes of goods are moved by lorry every year – everything from food and clothes to building materials, electronic gadgets and toys. Most heavy-duty vehicles run on diesel and they account for a quarter of the EU’s CO2 emissions from road transport. But making eco-friendly lorries and trucks is challenging. Big vehicles need big batteries, which currently take too long to charge and take up too much room. So Germany is trying out a few alternatives. The eHighway system enables lorries to connect to overhead electricity cables, just like trams and trains. And while lorries are connected, smaller on-board batteries could be charged up too to power the final leg of a journey. The country is also investing in another technology: hydrogen. Fuel cells convert the gas into electricity and the only emissions from these vehicles are water vapour and warm air. Seventy-five hydrogen fuel pumps have already opened across the country. Reporter: William Kremer
Global experts and decision makers discuss, debate and analyse a key news story.
Rank #1: What Does Steve Bannon Think?.
Steve Bannon is widely seen as one of the most influential – and in some quarters one of the most dangerous - men in President Trump’s administration. He holds the key post of White House Chief Strategist, but who is he and what does he really believe? Join Owen Bennett Jones and his guests on Newshour Extra this week as they consider Mr Bannon's influence in the future direction of policy. How will his mix of right and left-wing views shape President Trump’s economic plans? How might his interest in fringe historical theories impact on social and foreign policy? And what are the consequences of his belief that the Judeo-Christian West is facing an existential crisis in its confrontation with the Islamic world?
Rank #2: Trump and Russia: A Long Relationship.
President Trump’s connections with Russia is a story that won’t go away. There are so many allegations flying around that it can be difficult to separate what is actually known and what is rumour. The President and his supporters have one key point - that despite all the coverage and official investigations, there is still no evidence of collusion between the Trump campaign and Russia. Nor is there evidence that Trump’s business connections to Russia are other than legitimate. But did Russia try to influence the election outcome? And what about the stream of stories linking members of Trump’s team to Russia? As a special counsel is appointed to oversee the investigation into alleged Russian interference in the US presidential election, Owen Bennett Jones and panel of expert guests marshal the facts and explain what is known for sure about Donald Trump’s longstanding relationship with Russia.Photo: Donald Trump in White House talking on phone to President Putin, 28 January 2017. Credit: Getty Images
Discover world history, culture and ideas with today’s leading experts.
Rank #1: Lost and Found.
From the horrors of human suffering and plunder of ancient artefacts in war to the reshaping of musical traditions, we examine the notion of things lost and found. British journalist Julian Borger reflects on the unmasking of some of the most notorious Balkan war criminals, Iraqi archaeologist Dr Lamia al-Gailani Werr mourns the loss of ancient relics in modern conflict and American pianist Bruce Brubaker deconstructs modern minimalist music.(Photo: The inner walls of Babylon, Iraq)
Rank #2: After Dark: How we Respond to Darkness.
Dr Janina Ramirez explores our relationship with, and attitudes to, darkness and the night. From the beginning of humanity when night was a time to sleep and hide from predators, over millennia the night and darkness has gathered a multitude of myths and cultural references all around the world and is something we can exploit, or something we might fear. Dr Janina Ramirez examines the human perspective of the dark, from night vision technology to Norwegian forest myths.Dr Ravindra Athale, of the Office of Naval Research in Arlington USA, an expert on night vision technology, who examines how nocturnal animals help high tech, and how our ability to see at night has affected the way we use the dark to conceal and surprise.Professor John Bowen from the University of York in the UK, an expert on Gothic literature and its roots.Erland Loe, the celebrated Norwegian author, who explores his own and fellow Norwegian’s response to long dark winter nights.Noam Elcott, Professor of Modern and Contemporary Art and Media at Columbia University in the USA who discusses the literal and metaphorical use of dark and night in film art and the dark room.(Photo: An artist's Illustration of a haunted forest. Credit: Shan Pillay)
In the Studio takes you into the minds of the world’s most creative people, with unprecedented access.
Rank #1: A new MoMA.
On 15 June 2019 the Museum of Modern Art in New York closed its doors ahead of a four month refurbishment and the final stage of a $400 million overhaul. When it re-opens its doors in October, MoMA will not only have reconfigured its galleries but also rehung the entire collection on show. In this special edition of In The Studio, Paul Kobrak follows Ramona Bronkar Bannayan, Senior Deputy Director of Exhibitions & Collections, and Lana Hum, Director of Exhibition Design & Production, as they oversee this epic feat of creativity and choreography. This time, instead of moving to a temporary space as they did for MoMA's last renovation 15 years ago, they are deinstalling and reinstalling nearly 170,000 square feet of gallery space in just under 4 months. Roughly 10,000 art moves are being undertaken between conservation, storage, and the galleries; and around 2,000 individual works of art are going into the frame shop - with 1,550 new frames having to be constructed. But it is not just the logistical nightmare that is keeping Ramona, Lana and the Museum’s curators and staff awake at night. With 40,000 square feet of additional space, as a result of expanding into a new residential skyscraper, they also aim to rethink the way the story of modern and contemporary art is presented to the public – balancing the presentation of Claude Monet’s crowd-pleasing Water Lilies and Vincent Van Gogh’s The Starry Night, with lesser known works covering the full range of MoMA’s massive collection, including photography, sound works, performance, moving image and art forms not yet imagined. With exclusive access over an eight month period, Paul Kobrak traces the team's progress as they prepare for the Museum’s closure and the subsequent re-opening on 21 October 2019. Presented by Paul Kobrak. Produced by Paul Kobrak , Ella-mai Robey and Emma Kingsley for the BBC World Service. North/south section-perspective through the new gallery spaces at The Museum of Modern Art, looking east along Fifty-third Street.
Rank #2: World of Warcraft.
World of Warcraft is one of the most popular computer games on the planet and it’s managed to sustain that popularity for 15 years, outlasting countless rivals. The game is produced by creative artists, designers and programmers who work together to create the mystical land of Azeroth.Presenter and gamer Alex Humphreys spends time with the sound department, who play a critical role in the development of the game. The key to the success of World of Warcraft is maintaining the desire of players to come back for more, day after day. They have to be immersed in the game and feel like they’re playing in a real place.Following the team as they prepare for their next content update, Alex talks to writers, producers and sound designers to find out how each of them play their part in creating Azeroth. From the meeting room, to the recording studio and the edit suite, each step along the way contributes to the player experience and the success of the game.
Neil MacGregor explores the role and expression of shared beliefs in communities around the world. Produced in partnership with the British Museum.
Rank #1: Water of Life and Death.
Neil MacGregor continues his series on the expression of shared beliefs in communities around the world and across time, and focuses on water, including a visit to the Ganges at Varanasi, India. In Islam, Christianity and Judaism, water is an essential part of religious practice. But for no faith does water - and one particular kind of water - play such a significant role as for Hindus. To bathe in the river Ganges is not just to prepare to meet the divine, but already to be embraced by it. The river Ganges is the goddess Ganga, and the waters of this river, which govern life and death, have not only determined many aspects of Hinduism, but in considerable measure shaped the identity of the modern state of India. Producer Paul KobrakThe series is produced in partnership with the British Museum. Photograph: (c) The Trustees of the British Museum.
Rank #2: Here Comes the Sun.
Neil MacGregor continues his series on the expression of shared beliefs in communities around the world, and focuses on light. He experiences the sunrise whilst inside the monumental stone passage tomb at Newgrange, Ireland, a structure older than Stonehenge or the pyramids in Egypt. Here, on the winter solstice, thanks to the design of the tomb, a bright, narrow beam of sunlight reaches deep inside the structure. He also considers the story of Amaterasu, the Japanese sun goddess, whose decision to hide herself in a cave plunged the world into darkness, and reflects on how - centuries later - the image of rising sun became closely linked with Japanese national identity. Producer Paul KobrakThe series is produced in partnership with the British MuseumPhotograph: (c) The Trustees of the British Museum.
Technological and digital news from around the world.
Rank #1: BBC News on the ‘dark web’.
In an attempt to thwart censorship, BBC News is now available through the privacy-focused browser Tor also known as the gateway to the ‘dark web’. Facebook’s ambitions to launch cryptocurrency Last week, the founder of Facebook, Mark Zuckerberg, addressed critical questions about the company’s ambition to launch their own cryptocurrency ‘Libra’. Dr Catherine Mulligan of Imperial College London’s Centre for Cryptocurrency Research explains why some companies are leaving the Libra association. UNICEF start crypto-currency fund UNICEF, the United Nations Children’s Fund, will now be able to receive donations in crypto-currencies like Bitcoin and Ethereum. Christopher Fabian, co-founder of UNICEF’s innovation unit, explains how this will allow the organisation to buy data directly from suppliers for schools that are currently offline. New spy technology uses wi-fi signals Wi-fi signals are distorted as they bounce off objects. Dr Yasamin Mostofi from the University of California has created a way to use these distortions to ‘see’ and possibly identify a person moving behind a wall.(Image credit: BBC)Producer: Louisa Field
Rank #2: Facebook Live on crime tech.
Digital Planet looks at crime tech in a special Facebook live edition. Gareth Mitchell and Ghislaine Boddington are joined by facial recognition expert Dr Stephanie Hare and Dr Sarah Morris, the director of the Digital Forensics Unit at Cranfield University in the UK. The unit helped convict a criminal using the data on the motherboard of his washing machine!(Photo: Binary numbers on a finger tip. Credit: Getty Images)
A weekly reflection on a topical issue.
Rank #1: The Ring of the Nibelung.
As Wagner's Ring - that huge and controversial cycle of operas - goes on tour, self-professed Wagner fan, Roger Scruton, tells us why The Ring is absolutely a story for our time. "Despite our attempts to live without formal religion" writes Scruton, "we are no more free than people ever have been or ever will be from the religious need". He adds: "I have loved The Ring and learned from it for over 50 years and for me, it is quite simply the truth about our world - but the truth expressed by means of music of unquestionable authority and supreme melodic and harmonic power".
Rank #2: Britain, Europe and the World.
In these special editions of Radio 4's long-running essay programme, A Point of View, five of Britain's leading thinkers, give their own very personal view of "Brexit" - what the vote tells us about the country we are, and are likely to become.Today, the philosopher John Gray who has presented on Radio 4 for many years, argues that Britain should look to Brexit as a new beginning in which it "can throw off the dead weight of a failing European project". He says we should now accept the new opportunities given to us and "make our home in a more spacious world". Producer: Adele Armstrong.
Extraordinary first person stories from around the world
Rank #1: The Retiree who Broke the Lottery.
After Jerry Selbee retired in 2002, he found a way to crack the lottery in the US state of Michigan. He and his wife Marge ended up making millions of dollars. Jo Fidgen takes up the story.(Image: Jerry and Marge Selbee. Photo credit: Rachel Koenig.)
Rank #2: My life as an undercover CIA agent: Part Two.
Amaryllis Fox tells Jo Fidgen how she was head-hunted by two different spying agencies while studying at Oxford and Georgetown Universities. She was recruited by the CIA aged 21 and within a few years she was an undercover field agent. Amaryllis lived under false identities, infiltrating arms dealing networks. She was pushed into getting married twice during her service so her partners could gain the necessary security clearance. She even took her baby on secret missions. Amaryllis has written a book about her life as a spy called Life Undercover: Coming of Age in the CIA.Presenter: Jo FidgenProducer: Thomas Harding AssinderPicture: Amaryllis FoxCredit: Tristar Media
Series focusing on foreign affairs issues
Rank #1: China: Too Old to Get Rich?.
In this week's Crossing Continents, Mukul Devichand tells the stories of Shanghai's rapidly ageing population. China's natural ageing process has been accelerated by the One Child Policy. Mukul tells the stories of an ageing city and asks whether China's rapid economic growth could be undermined.Shanghai's image is youthful and contemporary, of a globalised metropolis buying into a new lifestyle at chains like Ikea. But the Ikea Shanghai store is home to a different category -- and age -- of customer. The store canteen has become a meeting point for elderly singles, looking for love and friendship. It's a story repeated across Shanghai: in places you may expect to millions of young people, you'll see the elderly. Like the rest of urban China, Shanghai is growing old. A quarter of the city's resident population is now retired, putting it in the same demographic league as countries like the UK or Germany. But ageing in China is different. Its fertility rates have dropped at a speed unprecedented in modern history because its "One Child" policy. 30 years after the policy started, the speed of ageing is faster in China than anywhere else. The burden of ageing is not only coming faster, it's also much also harsher here, because China is still a developing country -- with hundreds of millions of poor people to support, as well as hundreds of millions of additional elderly. That has led to a deep seated anxiety in China: will the country grow too old to get rich?Nestled amid skyscrapers, Mukul tells the stories of the old Shanghai of inner city districts, a place of tumbledown old blocks where the elderly are concentrated. He meets the couples and families struggling with new complaints, such as dementia and alzheimers, under the burden of low incomes and limited welfare. This story of poverty amid plenty symbolises the deeper worry: of the expense of an ageing China in a country where elderly care has traditionally been managed by the family.In the same city districts, public and private nursing homes are now opening their doors. These cater to a growing demand from families who can't manage the traditional custom of "many generations under one roof" and represent a big cultural change in China. But who will pay for this kind of care nationally? Mukul tells the stories of the rural migrants, caught between the gaps of China's welfare system -- the millions for whom such care is simply not an option.What can be done? One solution is to encourage more babies in each family. But that is antithetical to China's historically draconian "One Child" family planning, which is now deeply entrenched in the culture. Mukul visits a family planning centre, which now encourages some couples to have more than one -- and finds the couples aren't always listening. He speaks to Shanghai's leading family planning officials to ask if they are changing the "One Child" policy, and how fast.At its root, the real problem is not just too many elderly. Rather it's a shortage of young workers, threatening China's economic model itself. A lack of willing youth is a huge issue for a country whose entire business model is based on millions of cheap workers. In the industrial zones south of Shanghai, Mukul tells the stories of a crisis in labour. Will China's factory of the world collapse under the burden of ageing?
Rank #2: Albania: Shadows of the Past.
Maria Margaronis explores the debris of Albania's painful past-the prison labour camps, concrete bunkers and secret police headquarters--as archives are unlocked and new monuments put up in an effort to redefine who Albanians are. The country's citizens are trying to come to terms with history and move on from Enver Hoxha's dictatorial regime, the pyramid schemes and the political and economic collapse that followed. Instead of moving on, though, many are moving out of the country altogether. Do their leaders' efforts represent real change, or are they just an attempt to plaster over the cracks and reinforce Albania's plan to enter the EU?
Weekly discussion programme, setting the cultural agenda every Monday
Rank #1: Jonathan Franzen.
On Start the Week Tom Sutcliffe talks to the American writer Jonathan Franzen about his latest novel, Purity. One of Franzen's characters compares the internet with the East German Republic and he satirises the utopian ideas of the apparatchik web-users. The head of the Oxford Internet Institute Helen Margetts counters with her research on the success and failure of political action via social media. The artist Tacita Dean laments the ubiquity of digital at the expense of film, and the financial journalist Gillian Tett roots out tunnel vision - both personal and business - in her new book on silos.Producer: Katy Hickman.
Rank #2: India's Rise?.
On Start the Week Andrew Marr discusses India. The Indian MP Shashi Tharoor looks back at the history of the Raj in Inglorious Empire, a searing indictment of the British and the impact on his country. The journalist Adam Roberts travels from Kerala to the Himalayas to find out whether a resurgent, vibrant India is about to realise its potential, and whether the belief in future prosperity will cover over the cracks which have divided the nation in the past. The Prime Minister, Narendra Modi, is at the centre of India's reinvention, and has galvanised Hindu nationalists, but the academic Kate Sullivan de Estrada argues that he's a controversial figure both at home and abroad. And the writer Preti Taneja retells Shakespeare's great tragedy, King Lear, set in Delhi and Kashmir, in her exploration of contemporary Indian society. Producer: Katy HickmanImage: Indian Prime Minister Narendra Modi participates in a mass yoga session to mark the International Day of Yoga on 21st June, 2016 in Chandigarh, India. Credit: Getty Images.
Are we at a series of global tipping points?
Rank #1: Fixing Globalisation – Jim O’Neill in conversation with Jim Yong Kim.
The economist Jim O’Neill talks with the president of the World Bank, Dr Jim Yong Kim, about globalisation’s winners and losers and how world leaders can ensure its benefits are more evenly spread. This is bonus material from interviews recorded for the New World Series.
Rank #2: It's the Demography, Stupid!.
How is population change transforming our world? Think of a python swallowing a pig: a big bulge makes its way slowly down the snake from the head end to the other end. That's a bit like what's happened to the UK demographically. The baby boom generation - which has changed Britain politically, culturally and economically - is now retiring. That means a large bulge of pensioners with big implications for the generations that come behind them. Other advanced economies face a similar challenge and emerging economies - most notably China - will be dealing with an ageing bulge themselves soon. But in Africa, the bulge is at the other end. A very young generation is about to make its way through the snake. Former government minister David Willetts, now executive chair of the Resolution Foundation, wrestles with this python of population change. What will these challenges of both ageing and very young populations mean for the world? What are the implications for future migration patterns, for geopolitics and for global economic growth? This programme is part of a special week of programmes for the first week of 2017, examining major forces which are changing the world around us. Producer: Rob Walker.
In-depth, hard-hitting interviews with newsworthy personalities.
Rank #1: Pro-Brexit Conservative MP, Owen Paterson.
Britain’s Prime Minister Theresa May is facing a mutiny inside her own Conservative Party, which threatens to scupper her Brexit deal and quite possibly her premiership too. If she loses the key parliamentary vote on her deal in just a few days time, the UK could plunge into political chaos. The stakes could hardly be higher for Owen Paterson, a Conservative MP and former Minister intent on rejecting Mrs May’s Brexit. Is it too late to avert a damaging national crisis?Image: Owen Paterson (Credit: AFP/Getty Images)
Rank #2: Clinical Psychologist - Jordan Peterson.
Anger is a powerful force in politics and there's a lot of it about. Donald Trump, Brexit and a host of populist movements have been fuelled by anger with the way things are. Where does it come from? How best to respond? One much discussed, provocative perspective comes not from a politician but the Canadian clinical psychologist, Jordan Peterson, whose defence of traditional values has won him a worldwide following. Is his diagnosis liberating or dangerous?(Photo: Dr Jordan Peterson. Credit: Carlos Osorio/Getty Images)
An insight into the character of an influential figure making news headlines
Rank #1: Paul Manafort.
He's worked with almost every US President since Gerald Ford. Paul Manafort, a political lobbyist and Trump's former campaign manager, is under house arrest charged with money laundering and fraud, his lavish lifestyle of luxurious mansions, fast cars and antique rugs laid bare by the FBI. Mark Coles profiles this powerbroker who some say may become a key witness for the investigation into Russia's alleged meddling in the US election.Producers: Beth Sagar-Fenton & Siobhan O'Connell.
Rank #2: Oprah Winfrey.
Following her barn-storming speech about sexual harassment at the Golden Globe awards, Mark Coles charts the rise of talk show host, philanthropist, media proprietor and actress Oprah Winfrey.With calls urging Winfrey to run for President, close friends and former colleagues recount their favourite moments with her on-set and at home. We learn about the woman behind the screen and her remarkable tale of rags to riches, from clothes made out of potato sacks to one of the richest black women in the world. Producer: Ben CarterEditor: Emma Rippon.
Dr Adam Rutherford and guests illuminate the mysteries and challenge the controversies behind the science that's changing our world.
Rank #1: Genetics and privacy, Global plastic, Great Ape Dictionary, Ocean Discovery X Prize.
Should our genomes be private? Professors Tim Hubbard and Nils Hoppe join Adam Rutherford to discuss concerns about data security and privacy of our genetic data. Once our DNA has been extracted, sequenced and stored as a digital file, what is done with it, who gets to see it and what say do we have in all this? Back in the 1950's at the dawn of the new plastic age, its everlasting properties were a major selling point. Now, we're dealing with escalating plastic pollution and bulging landfill. But how much plastic are we dealing with? Dr. Roland Geyer has calculated the production, use and fate of all plastics ever made.Chimpanzees are very communicative animals: they tend to use gestures foremost with vocalisation just to emphasise the flick of a wrist or a stretch of the hand. In an attempt to get a grasp on why, and how, we humans made the shift from gesture-led communication to talking, we need to see how well we can decipher our ape relatives. A new online study called the 'Great Ape Dictionary' wants you to have a go.The bottom of our seas remains a mysterious other world. Yet, adventuring into the deep depths of the ocean is a major challenge, which is probably why only 5% of it has ever been explored - even though it covers more than 70% of our planet. So to start learning more about our own planet, the Shell Ocean Discovery XPRIZE is awarding a total of $7 million to teams that develop autonomous, unmanned vehicles to map and image the bottom of the seas. Dr Jyotika Virmani tells Adam why ocean exploration is so important, and why it tends to take a backseat to adventuring into space.Presented by Adam RutherfordProduced by Fiona Roberts.
Rank #2: Dinosaur extinction, Neanderthals in Gibraltar, Music appreciation, A year of New Horizons.
The dinosaurs met their end with a massive bang when, 66 million years ago, a 6 mile-wide rock crashed into the Gulf of Mexico. This was bad news for the dinosaurs, and consequently good news for the mammals left behind. Thomas Halliday is a palaeontologist, who specialises on the rise of the mammals, and his new work unpicks what happened to survivors after 75% of the species on earth died. The Neanderthals were found in Gibraltar back in 1848. Ever since then, teams have been exploring the caves systems on that rocky outcrop of Europe. It's known as Neanderthal City and researchers think it was home to the very last of these people, some 30,000 years ago. BBC science reporter Melissa Hogenboom has just returned from Gibraltar and talks to Adam about the recent findings of abstract art, which suggest that Neanderthals are much more like us than previously thought.We generally find the combination of notes in a consonant chord more pleasant to our ears than a dissonant one. The question is whether that reaction is learnt or simply part of our biology. It's a tricky thing to test because music is culturally ubiquitous. Neuroscientist Josh McDermott has found a way around this, by playing those tunes to members of a very remote Bolivian tribe - the Tsimane - and gauging their reactions.One year on since the New Horizons probe zoomed past Pluto, Kathy Olkin, one of the chief scientists behind the mission talks to Adam about how the team have dealt with the new data. Noah Hammond from Brown University explains how he has used photographic data from New Horizons to examine the cracks in the surface of Pluto, and has suggested how they came to be.Presenter: Adam RutherfordProducer: Adrian Washbourne.