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Biomedical Engineering - Video

Biomedical Engineering - Video

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19 - Biomechanics and Orthopedics (cont.)

Professor Saltzman begins the lecture with discussion of the importance of motion for the survival and propagation of any living species. He presents the different modes of motion, taking first the example flight to talk about force balance, such as the magnitude of propulsive force that must be generated overcome drag to produce forward motion. Next, the mechanics of walking, running, cycling and swimming is discussed, with emphasis on efficient use of energy, overcoming drag and friction, and the influence of organism shape and size. An equation to calculate drag force of a spherical object of radius, r, moving at velocity, v, in a medium with viscosity, μ, is introduced: Fd = 6πvμr. Finally, Professor Saltzman talks about design of the artificial hip, which biomedical engineers must take into consideration the biomechanics and natural function of the pelvic bone.

8 Oct 2009

Rank #1

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06 - Cell Culture Engineering (cont.)

Professor Saltzman describes the processes of fertilization and embryogenesis. Professor Saltzman then talks about the definition and classification of different types of stem cells, where stem cells are found in the body, and the potential for use of stem cells in treating diseases. Some challenges in this type of therapy are also discussed. Finally, Professor Saltzman introduces the exponential equation for cell growth, dX/dt = eμt, and the concept of cell "doubling time."

8 Oct 2009

Rank #2

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18 - Biomechanics and Orthopedics

Professor Saltzman introduces the material properties of elasticity and viscosity. He describes two separate experimental setups to measure the elasticity and the viscosity of a material. Material elasticity can be defined in terms of stress-strain property, and defines the Young's modulus (E), which is the slope of the stress-strain curve. Fluid viscosity, on the other hand, is described by shear stress. When modeling any material, the spring can be used to represent an ideal elastic material and the dashpot an ideal viscoelastic material. All biomaterials contain some combination of these properties and can be described by physical models that consist of both spring and dashpot.

8 Oct 2009

Rank #3

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20 - Bioimaging

Professor Saltzman first reviews the electromagnetic spectrum, the different regimes of the spectrum, their respective wavelengths, energies, and ways of detecting them. He then talks about the use of high energy radio waves for imaging of the body. The history, components, advantages and limitations of X-ray imaging are presented in detail. Next, he introduces Computed Tomography, a related imaging technique which uses mathematical computation to compile line-scanned X-rays into a three dimensional image. Finally, Professor Saltzman touches on harmful effects of X-ray radiation, and ways to limit or avoid overexposure in these imaging techniques.

8 Oct 2009

Rank #4

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16 - Renal Physiology

Professor Saltzman introduces the basic concepts of renal physiology. Professor Saltzman first introduces the function and anatomy of the kidney. Special attention is given to the cell types and structural aspect of the nephron, the functional unit of the kidney. Filtration, secretion of toxic waste, and reabsorption of water, ions, and nutrients through the glomerulus and various segments of the nephrons is discussed in detail. Finally, Professor Saltzman describes glomerular filtration rate as a function of pressure drop, which is regulated by afferent and efferent arterioles, to control how much volume being filtered through glomerulus.

8 Oct 2009

Rank #5

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15 - Cardiovascular Physiology (cont.)

Professor Saltzman talks about electrical conductivity in the heart: that is, the generation and propagation of electrical potential in heart cells. He describes the role of ion channels and pumps in transporting sodium, potassium, and calcium ions to create action potential. This propagation of signal from the sinoatrial node through different tissues, which can be replaced by a pacemaker, eventually stimulates contraction of muscle fibers throughout the heart. Next, he describes the electrocardiograph and how each wave trace corresponds to the events caused by depolarization/repolarization of different heart tissues.

8 Oct 2009

Rank #6

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14 - Cardiovascular Physiology (cont.)

Professor Saltzman describes the blood flow through the systemic and pulmonary circulatory system. More specifically, he describes, with the help of diagrams, the events that lead to blood flow in the body as a function of contraction/relaxation by specific chambers of the heart, and the effect of four valves which help direct flow. Important terms and concepts such as systole/diastole pressures, cardiac output (CO) as a function of heart rate (HR) and ejection volume (EV), and the action potential propagation that stimulates heart muscle contraction are discussed.

8 Oct 2009

Rank #7

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13 - Cardiovascular Physiology

Professor Saltzman discusses the biophysics of the circulatory system. He begins by describing the anatomy of different types of blood vessels, and states the relationship between pressure difference (ΔP) as the driving force for fluid flow (Q) in a tube (i.e., blood vessel) with some resistance R (ΔP = RQ). R can be calculated using if dimensions of the tube (L, r) and fluid viscosity (μ) are known: R = 8μL/πr4. Next, Professor Saltzman traces the blood flow through the circulatory system and explains how the body can regulate blood flow to specific regions of the body. Finally, he describes the heart and its function as the pressure generator in the system.

8 Oct 2009

Rank #8

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12 - Biomolecular Engineering: General Concepts (cont.)

Professor Saltzman reviews the pharmacokinetic first-order rate equation that can be used to model changes in drug concentration in the blood, as well as its derivation from the law of conservation of mass. The importance of maintaining a drug concentration that is sufficient for therapeutic purpose, but below a toxic level, is emphasized. Since this is directly affected by drug administration method, ways to localize and sustain therapeutic concentrations of drug, such as incorporating in slow-releasing, biocompatible polymers are introduced. Professor Saltzman gave some examples of clinical applications of controlled release drug delivery system, such as anti-restenosis drug incorporated into stents, and chemotherapeutic drugs in brain implants and microspheres.

8 Oct 2009

Rank #9

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11 - Biomolecular Engineering: General Concepts

Professor Saltzman starts the lecture with an introduction to pharmacokinetics and pharmacodynamics. Professor Saltzman talks about the concept of dose-response. He introduces different routes of drug administration and how they affect drug distribution and bioavailability (i.e., intravenous, oral, and sublingual routes). First-pass drug metabolism by the liver is also identified as an important source of drug degradation. Finally, modeling the body as a well-stirred vessel, Professor Saltzman explains the first-order rate equation: C = (M0/V)*e-kt, that can be used calculate the amount of drug in the body (M) as a function of time (t) and a rate constant (k); and the equation for drug half-life: t = ln(2/k).

8 Oct 2009

Rank #10