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Teaching Hard History

What we don’t know about American history hurts us all. Teaching Hard History begins with the long legacy of slavery and reaches through Reconstruction, Jim Crow, and the civil rights movement into the present day. Brought to you by Learning for Justice (formerly Teaching Tolerance) and hosted by Dr. Hasan Kwame Jeffries and Dr. Bethany Jay, Teaching Hard History brings us the lessons we should have learned in school through the voices of scholars and educators. It’s great advice for teachers and good information for everybody.

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Slavery & the Northern Economy – w/ Christy Clark Pujara

When we think of slavery as a strictly Southern institution, we perpetuate a “dangerous fiction,” according to Professor Christy Clark-Pujara. Avoid the trap with this episode about the role the North played in perpetuating slavery and the truth behind the phrase “slavery built the United States.”  Visit the show notes for this episode to find a complete transcript and a list of resources to help you teach the ideas explored by our guests. And educators! Get a professional development certificate for listening to this episode—issued by Learning for Justice. Listen for the special code word, then visit learningforjustice.org/podcastpd.

33mins

30 Jan 2018

Rank #1

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Dealing With Things As They Are: Creating a Classroom Environment – w/ Steven Thurston Oliver

In many ways, the U.S. has fallen short of its ideals. How can we explain this to students—particularly in the context of discussing slavery? Professor Steven Thurston Oliver has this advice for teachers: Face your fears.  Educators! Get a professional development certificate for listening to this episode—issued by Learning for Justice. Listen for the special code word, then visit learningforjustice.org/podcastpd. And be sure to visit the show notes for this episode, for a complete transcript and resources to help you teach the ideas explored by our guests.

43mins

31 Jan 2018

Rank #2

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The Hidden History of American Slavery – w/ Maureen Costello, Eduardo Díaz and Renée Gokey

American slavery shaped our modern world and most certainly the foundation and development of what is now the United States. The Smithsonian’s Eduardo Díaz and Renée Gokey discuss the importance of learning about Indigenous enslavement. And Teaching Tolerance Director Maureen Costello explains all of the program’s classroom resources available for teaching this history, including a first-of-its-kind K-5 framework. Educators! Get a professional development certificate for listening to this episode—issued by Learning for Justice. Listen for the special code word, then visit learningforjustice.org/podcastpd. And you can find a complete transcript on our website, along with resources to help you teach the hard history explored in this episode. Resources like these...  Resources and Readings Teaching Hard History: American Slavery Teaching Hard History Key Concept Videos Teaching American Slavery Through Inquiry Maureen Costello Director, Teaching Tolerance References: Ira Berlin, The Making of African America: The Four Great Migrations Ira Berlin, The Long Emancipation: The Demise of Slavery in the United States Kathy Swan, Department of Curriculum and Instruction, University of Kentucky National Council for History Education Teaching Tolerance: Text, I Have a Dream by MLK Teaching Tolerance: Webinar, Beyond the Bus: Teaching the Unseen Story of Rosa Parks and the Montgomery Bus Boycott Teaching Tolerance: The Moment, Teaching the Truth about Confederate History Eduardo Díaz Director, Smithsonian Latino Center  Renée Gokey Teacher Services Coordinator, National Museum of the American Indian (NMAI) | Teaching Tolerance author References: Andrés Reséndez, The Other Slavery: The Uncovered Story of Indian Enslavement in America NPR Genevieve Valentine, Horrors Pile Up Quietly In 'The Other Slavery' Stephen Warren, The Worlds the Shawnees Made: Migration and Violence in Early America Christopher Columbus, Extracts from Journal Indigenous Peoples' Curriculum Day and Teach-In Native Knowledge 360° National Museum of African American History and Culture NMAI exhibition, Taíno: Native Heritage and Identity in the Caribbean NMAI exhibition, T.C. Cannon: At the Edge of America Teaching Tolerance: Text, Indian Removal Act: Primary Documents in American History National Museum of American History, Molina Family Latino Gallery Hasan Kwame Jeffries Department of History, Ohio State University | Teaching Hard History author References: CARTER Center for K–12 Black History Education, Teaching Black History Conference Carter Conference 2019, Teaching about the Beauty, Power, and Resistance of Black History Dr. LaGarrett King, founding director CARTER Center, University of Missouri James Madison’s Montpelier (Ohio State University students' visit) Ebony Elizabeth Thomas, Graduate School of Education, University of Pennsylvania Barry Thomas, Director of Equity and Diversity, Omaha Public Schools

1hr 29mins

23 Aug 2019

Rank #3

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Teaching Slavery through Children's Literature, Part 1 – w/ Ebony Elizabeth Thomas

Children’s books are often the primary way young students are exposed to the history of American slavery. But many books about slavery sugarcoat oppression. Professor Ebony Elizabeth Thomas examines what we should consider when it comes to how children’s books portray African Americans and Indigenous people, their cultures and the effects of enslavement. She also explains why it’s crucial to create “a balance of narratives” when selecting books about marginalized and underrepresented communities. Educators! Get a professional development certificate for listening to this episode—issued by Learning for Justice. Listen for the special code word, then visit learningforjustice.org/podcastpd. And you can find a complete transcript on our website, along with resources to help you teach the hard history explored in this episode. Resources like these...  Resources and Readings Teaching Tolerance, "Lies My Bookshelf Told Me" Teaching Tolerance, "Hercules’ Daughter" Rethinking Schools, Teaching for Black Lives Ebony Elizabeth Thomas University of Pennsylvania, Literacy, Culture, and International Education Twitter, @Ebonyteach The Dark Fantastic: Race and the Imagination from Harry Potter to the Hunger Games References: Virginia Hamilton, The House of Dies Drear Walter Dean Myers, The Legend of Tariq John Steptoe, Mufaro's Beautiful Daughters Tonya Bolden, Searching for Sarah Rector PBS Africans in America, Benjamin Banneker National Archives, "To Thomas Jefferson from Benjamin Banneker, 1791" Chinua Achebe (Wikipedia) Imani Perry, May We Forever Stand:A History of the Black National Anthem James Weldon Johnson (Wikipedia) Teaching Tolerance, Black History Month: Teaching Beyond Slavery N. K. Jemisin, How Long 'til Black Future Month? Rudine S Bishop, Free Within Ourselves: The Development of African American Children's Literature Glenda Armand, Love Twelve Miles Long Ashley Bryan, Freedom Over Me: Eleven Slaves, Their Lives and Dreams Teaching Tolerance, Meet Frederick Douglass Detroit History, Frederick Douglass and John Brown Meeting Place Manumission (Wikipedia) Amma Asante film, Belle (Wikipedia) Emily Jenkins, A Fine Dessert: Four Centuries, Four Families, One Delicious Treat The New York Times, “Scholastic Halts Distribution of ‘A Birthday Cake for George Washington’” Erica Armstrong Dunbar, Never Caught: The Washingtons' Relentless Pursuit of Their Runaway Slave, Ona Judge Hasan Kwame Jeffries Ohio State University, African-American History All Sides with Ann Fisher (radio), Black History Is American History Ohio State University, United Black World Month And you'll find a full episode transcript on our site.

1hr 11mins

25 Oct 2019

Rank #4

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Indigenous Enslavement: Part 1 – w/ Christina Snyder

Millions of Indigenous people lived in North America before European colonial powers invaded. Along with an insatiable desire for free labor, Europeans brought systems of slavery that significantly differed from the historical practices of enslavement among Native nations. Historian Christina Snyder explains what happened when these worlds collided. European concepts of bondage transformed the way Native nations interacted, resulted in the enslavement and death of millions and sparked widespread resistance. Educators! Get a professional development certificate for listening to this episode—issued by Learning for Justice. Listen for the special code word, then visit learningforjustice.org/podcastpd. And you can find a complete transcript on our website, along with resources to help you teach the hard history explored in this episode. Resources like these...  Resources and Resources Teaching Tolerance: Lesson, Rethinking Discovery Teaching Tolerance: I am the Blood of the Conqueror, I am the Blood of the Conquered Teaching Tolerance: Stowage on the Slave Ship Brooks, 1788 Wikipedia: Requerimiento: The Spanish Requirement of 1513 Christina Snyder McCabe Greer Professor of History, Penn State University Slavery in Indian Country: The Changing Face of Captivity in Early America Great Crossings; Indians, Settlers, and Slaves in the Age of Jackson References: Teaching Tolerance: Lesson, Precolumbian Native Peoples and Technology Doctrine of Discovery Teaching Tolerance: The Atlantic Slave Trade what too few textbooks told you U.S. Supreme Court, Johnson V. M’Intosh Wikipedia: Requerimiento: The Spanish Requirement of 1513 Mapping the Mississippian Shatter Zone: The Colonial Indian Slave Trade and Regional Instability in the American South Sarah Shear, Social Studies & Multicultural Education, University of Washington-Bothell

1hr 25mins

6 Sep 2019

Rank #5

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Resistance Means More Than Rebellion – w/ Kenneth S. Greenberg

To see a more complete picture of the experience of enslaved people, you have to redefine resistance, Dr. Kenneth S. Greenberg offers teachers a lens to help students see the ways in which enslaved people fought back against the brutality of slavery.  Educators! Get a professional development certificate for listening to this episode—issued by Learning for Justice. Listen for the special code word, then visit learningforjustice.org/podcastpd. And be sure to visit the show notes for this episode, for a complete transcript and resources to help you teach the ideas explored by our guests.

1hr 7mins

2 Mar 2018

Rank #6

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Slavery Today – w/ James Brewer Stewart

Enslavement didn’t end with Emancipation. Historian James Brewer Stewart discusses modern-day slavery happening across the world—and right here in the U.S. – showing educators how to connect the past with the present.  Visit the show notes for this episode to find a complete transcript and a list of resources to help you teach the ideas explored by our guests. And educators! Get a professional development certificate for listening to this episode—issued by Learning for Justice. Listen for the special code word, then visit learningforjustice.org/podcastpd.

1hr 10mins

29 Jun 2018

Rank #7

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Slavery in the Constitution – w/ Dr. Paul Finkelman

Constitutional historian Paul Finkelman explains the deeply racist bargains the founding fathers struck to unify the country under one document and discusses what students should know about how slavery defined the United States after the Revolution.  Educators! Get a professional development certificate for listening to this episode—issued by Learning for Justice. Listen for the special code word, then visit learningforjustice.org/podcastpd. And be sure to visit the show notes for this episode, for a complete transcript and resources to help you teach the ideas explored by our guests.

40mins

26 Apr 2018

Rank #8

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In the Elementary Classroom – w/ Kate Shuster, Marian Dingle, Bria Wright, Marvin Reed and Alice Mitchell

For elementary teachers approaching the topic of slavery, it can be tempting to focus only on heroes and avoid explaining oppression. But teachers’ omissions speak as loudly as what they choose to include. And what children learn in the early grades has broad consequences for the rest of their education. Dr. Kate Shuster guides us through the new Teaching Hard History K–5 framework from Teaching Tolerance. We also learn how four elementary teachers are beginning to use it in their classrooms. Educators! Get a professional development certificate for listening to this episode—issued by Learning for Justice. Listen for the special code word, then visit learningforjustice.org/podcastpd. And you can find a complete transcript on our website, along with resources to help you teach the hard history explored in this episode. Resources like these...  Resources and Readings Teaching Tolerance magazine, "We Are Our Ancestors' Wildest Dreams" James Madison's Montpelier, The Mere Distinction of Colour (exhibition) Kate Shuster Teaching Tolerance articles Teaching Tolerance, Teaching the Movement Teaching Hard History, K-5 Framework: Essential Knowledge Bria Wright Fifth grade, Raleigh, North Carolina, Teaching Tolerance Advisory Board References: Teaching Hard History, K-5 Framework: Essential Knowledge #1 Beyoncé, Freedom feat. Kendrick Lamar (video) Glenn E. Singleton, Courageous Conversations About Race: A Field Guide for Achieving Equity in Schools Teaching Tolerance, My Multicultural Self Marvin Reed Third grade, Berkeley, California, Teaching Tolerance Advisory Board References: Teaching Tolerance, Remembering My Four Friends 50 Years Later Teaching Hard History, K-5 Framework: Essential Knowledge #5 Teaching Tolerance, The Story of César Chávez, Dolores Huerta and a Great Movement for Social Justice Teaching Hard History, K-5 Framework: Essential Knowledge #7 English Language Arts (ELA) Standards Teaching Tolerance: Lesson, The Little Rock Battle for School Integration Sharon Draper, Fire from the Rock Teaching Tolerance: Feature, Beyond the Little Rock Nine Langston Hughes Maya Angelou Alice Mitchell Fifth grade, Boston, Massachusetts, Teaching Tolerance Advisory Board References: Teaching Hard History, K-5 Framework: Essential Knowledge #12 NEA, K-W-L Charts (Know, Want to Know, Learned) Teaching Hard History, K-5 Framework: Essential Knowledge #14 Teaching Tolerance, Poster Warning Blacks in Boston: Kidnappers Marian Dingle Fourth grade, Atlanta, Georgia, Teaching Tolerance Advisory Board References: Teaching Hard History, K-5 Framework: Essential Knowledge #15 The New York Times: Nikole Hannah-Jones, The 1619 Project U.S. Supreme Court, Dred Scott v. Sandford PBS/WGBH, Africans in America: The Middle Passage And you'll find a full episode transcript on our site.

1hr 27mins

4 Oct 2019

Rank #9

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In the Footsteps of Others: Process Drama – w/ Lindsay Randall

Students learning about slavery often ask, “Why didn’t enslaved people just run away or revolt?” Lindsay Anne Randall offers a lesson in “Process Drama”—a method teachers can use to answer this question, build empathy and offer perspective.  Visit the show notes for this episode to find a complete transcript and a list of resources to help you teach the ideas explored by our guests. And educators! Get a professional development certificate for listening to this episode—issued by Learning for Justice. Listen for the special code word, then visit learningforjustice.org/podcastpd.

43mins

15 Feb 2018

Rank #10

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Slavery in the Supreme Court – w/ Paul Finkelman

In the United States, justice was never blind. Historian Paul Finkelman goes beyond legal jargon to illustrate how slavery was entangled with the opinions of the Court—and encoded into the Constitution itself.  Visit the show notes for this episode to find a complete transcript and a list of resources to help you teach the ideas explored by our guests. And educators! Get a professional development certificate for listening to this episode—issued by Learning for Justice. Listen for the special code word, then visit learningforjustice.org/podcastpd.

55mins

10 May 2018

Rank #11

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Confronting Hard History at Montpelier

At James Madison’s Montpelier, the legacy of enslaved people isn’t silenced—and their descendants have a voice. Christian Cotz, Price Thomas and Dr. Patrice Preston Grimes explain how that happened, and why it’s important.  Educators! Get a professional development certificate for listening to this episode—issued by Learning for Justice. Listen for the special code word, then visit learningforjustice.org/podcastpd. And be sure to visit the show notes for this episode, for a complete transcript and resources to help you teach the ideas explored by our guests.

1hr 15mins

29 May 2018

Rank #12

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Indigenous Enslavement: Part 2 – w/ Christina Snyder

Understanding Indigenous enslavement expands our conception of slavery in what is now the United States. It spread across the entire continent and affected millions of people of different backgrounds. If we define slavery too narrowly, we can fail to see its persistence over time and even its modern-day permutations. Historian Christina Snyder examines the Civil War, Lincoln and emancipation with Indigenous people in mind. Educators! Get a professional development certificate for listening to this episode—issued by Learning for Justice. Listen for the special code word, then visit learningforjustice.org/podcastpd. And you can find a complete transcript on our website, along with resources to help you teach the hard history explored in this episode. Resources like these...  Resources and Readings Teaching Hard History, K-5 Framework: Essential Knowledge #18 Teaching Hard History, 6-12 Framework: Objective #8 Teaching Hard History, 6-12 Framework: Objective #16 National Museum of the American Indian, Native Knowledge 360° Minnesota Historical Society, Dakota War of 1862 Christina Snyder McCabe Greer Professor of History, Penn State University Slavery in Indian Country: The Changing Face of Captivity in Early America Great Crossings; Indians, Settlers, and Slaves in the Age of Jackson References: Teaching Tolerance, The Underground Railroad U.S. Supreme Court, Worcester v. Georgia Smithsonian film, The “Indian Problem” Malinda Maynor Lowery, The Lumbee Indians: An American Struggle University of Minnesota, Holocaust and Genocide Studies Teaching Tolerance, Emancipation Proclamation Time, How a Court Answered a Forgotten Question of Slavery’s Legacy WNET, Slaughterhouse Cases (1873) Crooked Media podcast, This Land And you'll find a full episode transcript on our site.

1hr 7mins

20 Sep 2019

Rank #13

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The Other Slavery – w/ Andrés Reséndez

A hundred years before the first ship carrying enslaved Africans arrived in Virginia, Europeans introduced the commercial practice of enslavement in “The New World.” And for the next 400 years, millions of Indigenous people throughout the Americas were enslaved through several forms of forced labor and bondage. Historian and author Andrés Reséndez calls this “The Other Slavery,” and his work is changing our understanding of the transatlantic slave trade. Educators! Get a professional development certificate for listening to this episode—issued by Learning for Justice. Listen for the special code word, then visit learningforjustice.org/podcastpd. And you can find a complete transcript on our website, along with resources to help you teach the hard history explored in this episode. Resources like these...  Resources and Readings Teaching Hard History, Summary Objective 1 Teaching Hard History, Summary Objective 2 Andrés Reséndez History, University of California, Davis The Other Slavery: The Uncovered Story of Indian Enslavement in America A Land So Strange: The Epic Journey of Cabeza de Vaca References: Ancient History Encyclopedia, Atahualpa Spanish forced labor, Encomienda Spanish forced labor, Repartimiento Southern United States, Convict leasing PBS: Slavery by Another Name, Slavery v. Peonage Interviews with Historians, Brett Rushforth Portuguese slave trade, São Jorge da Mina American Heritage, Columbus and Genocide Massimo Livi-Bacci, The Depopulation of Hispanic America after the Conquest Spain, New Laws of the Indies for the Good Treatment and Preservation of the Indians Nancy E. van Deusen, Global Indios: The Indigenous Struggle for Justice in Sixteenth-Century Spain And you'll find a full episode transcript on our site.

1hr 11mins

6 Dec 2019

Rank #14

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Silver, Resistance and the Evolution of Slavery in the West – w/ Andrés Reséndez

Throughout the 17th, 18th and 19th centuries, the forced labor and bondage of Indigenous peoples was integral to the economic and political history of what became the Southwestern United States. Historian and author Andrés Reséndez outlines the significance of silver mining, Indigenous enslavement and resistance in the history of New Mexico and Latin America. We also examine how, as white settlers moved west, so-called “free soil” states like California continued to institutionalize coerced labor. You can find a complete transcript in the show notes for this episode, along with a list of resources to help you teach the hard history explored in this episode.  And educators! Get a professional development certificate for listening to this episode—issued by Learning for Justice. Listen for the special code word, then visit learningforjustice.org/podcastpd.

1hr 14mins

20 Dec 2019

Rank #15

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Diverse Experience of the Enslaved w/ Deirdre Cooper Owens

Most students leave school thinking enslaved people lived like characters in Gone with the Wind. Dr. Deirdre Cooper Owens reveals the remarkable diversity of lived experiences within slavery and explains the gap between what scholars and students know.  Visit the show notes for this episode to find a complete transcript and a list of resources to help you teach the ideas explored by our guests. And educators! Get a professional development certificate for listening to this episode—issued by Learning for Justice. Listen for the special code word, then visit learningforjustice.org/podcastpd.

35mins

15 Mar 2018

Rank #16

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Teaching Slavery through Children's Literature, Part 2 – w/ Debbie Reese

Each autumn, Thanksgiving brings a disturbing amount of inaccurate information and troubling myths into classrooms across the United States. Most students don’t learn much about the history of Native nations—and even less about Indigenous peoples today. Dr. Debbie Reese explains what to look for and what to avoid (or teach with a critical lens) when selecting children’s books by and about Indigenous people. She also recommends specific books to counter common misconceptions in your classroom. Educators! Get a professional development certificate for listening to this episode—issued by Learning for Justice. Listen for the special code word, then visit learningforjustice.org/podcastpd. And you can find a complete transcript on our website, along with resources to help you teach the hard history explored in this episode. Resources like these...  Resources and Readings Teaching Tolerance, I Am the Blood of the Conqueror; I Am the Blood of the Conquered Teaching Tolerance, Teaching Thanksgiving in a Socially Responsible Way ReadWriteThink: Debbie Reese, Native Americans Today: Lesson Plan Dr. Debbie Reese Editor/Publisher, American Indians in Children's Literature (AICL) | Twitter References: AICL, A critical look at O'Dell's Island of the Blue Dolphins Andrea L. Rogers, Mary and the Trail of Tears: A Cherokee Removal Survival Story Traci Sorell, We Are Grateful: Otsaliheliga The New York Times, Everything You Learned About Thanksgiving Is Wrong Roxanne Dunbar-Ortiz, An Indigenous Peoples’ History of the United States Roxanne Dunbar-Ortiz (adapted by Jean Mendoza and Debbie Reese), An Indigenous Peoples’ History of the United States for Young People Carole Lindstrom, We Are Water Protectors First People, How the Chipmunk Got his Stripes National Indian Education Association, Policy Issues: Education Leilani Sabzalian, Indigenous Studies in Education, University of Oregon Sarah Shear, K-12 Teacher Resources Cynthia Leitich Smith, Hearts Unbroken National Indian Child Welfare Association, Indian Child Welfare Act AICL, L. Frank Baum: Author of Wizard of Oz books and racist editorials on American Indians Charlene Willing McManis, Indian No More Teaching Hard History, Summary Objective 16 (Lincoln and the Dakota 38) The New York Times, Lincoln and the Sioux Eric Gansworth, Writer and Visual Artist: Books Robbie Robertson, Testimony And you'll find a full episode transcript on our site.

58mins

8 Nov 2019

Rank #17

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Film and the History of Slavery w/ Ron Briley

Film has long shaped our nation's historical memory, for good and bad. Film historian Ron Briley offers ways to responsibly use films in the classroom to reframe the typical narrative of American slavery and Reconstruction.  Educators! Get a professional development certificate for listening to this episode—issued by Learning for Justice. Listen for the special code word, then visit learningforjustice.org/podcastpd. And be sure to visit the show notes for this episode, for a complete transcript and resources to help you teach the ideas explored by our guests.

46mins

29 Mar 2018

Rank #18

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Wrap up: Questions from the Classroom – w/ Bethany Jay

Historian Bethany Jay returns – answering questions from educators across the country. Host Hasan Kwame Jeffries and the co-editor of Understanding and Teaching American Slavery confront teacher anxieties and counter misconceptions in our season finale.  Visit the show notes for this episode to find a complete transcript and a list of resources to help you teach the ideas explored by our guests. And educators! Get a professional development certificate for listening to this episode—issued by Learning for Justice. Listen for the special code word, then visit learningforjustice.org/podcastpd.

54mins

14 Feb 2019

Rank #19

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Classroom Experiences – w/ Tamara Spears and Jordan Lanfair

How it’s done. Tamara Spears teaches middle school Social Studies in New York and Jordan Lanfair is a high school English Language Arts teacher in Chicago. Each has been developing additional lessons about slavery for years. They share their experiences.  Educators! Get a professional development certificate for listening to this episode—issued by Learning for Justice. Listen for the special code word, then visit learningforjustice.org/podcastpd. And be sure to visit the show notes for this episode, for a complete transcript and resources to help you teach the ideas explored by our guests.

57mins

15 Jan 2019

Rank #20