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Health & Fitness
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Nutrition

FoundMyFitness

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Rank #32 in Health & Fitness category

Health & Fitness
Medicine
Nutrition
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Promoting strategies to increase healthspan, well-being, cognitive and physical performance through deeper understandings of biology.

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Promoting strategies to increase healthspan, well-being, cognitive and physical performance through deeper understandings of biology.

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3636 Ratings
Average Ratings
3334
190
47
32
33

Awesome Podcast!!!

By Clarisse Gomez - Dec 06 2019
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Rhonda, host of the FoundMyFitness podcast, highlights all aspects of health, fitness and more in this can’t miss podcast! The host and expert guests offer insightful advice and information that is helpful to anyone that listens!

Waiting for more!

By demwrson - Nov 05 2019
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I’m in medical field and find this information valuable

iTunes Ratings

3636 Ratings
Average Ratings
3334
190
47
32
33

Awesome Podcast!!!

By Clarisse Gomez - Dec 06 2019
Read more
Rhonda, host of the FoundMyFitness podcast, highlights all aspects of health, fitness and more in this can’t miss podcast! The host and expert guests offer insightful advice and information that is helpful to anyone that listens!

Waiting for more!

By demwrson - Nov 05 2019
Read more
I’m in medical field and find this information valuable

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Cover image of FoundMyFitness

FoundMyFitness

Updated 3 days ago

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Promoting strategies to increase healthspan, well-being, cognitive and physical performance through deeper understandings of biology.

Dr. Satchin Panda on Practical Implementation of Time-Restricted Eating & Shift Work Strategies

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This is a nearly 2-hour round 2 episode with none other than Dr. Satchin Panda of the Salk Institute!

At nearly two hours of dialog, this episode touches on a lot of material but has a special focus on practical implementation of time-restricted eating. Put another way, I kept a list of a lot of questions that seem to keep coming up and present them directly to Satchin.

We talk about dealing with shift work, black coffee when fasting, and some of the distinctions between Satchin's approach to time-restricted eating which is influenced by his deep background in circadian biology and more conventional protocols like 16:8 that many people are familiar with.

In addition to these important and very practical how-to tidbits, we dive into lots of interesting new territory as well, including...

  • How human anecdote and animal evidence suggests time-restricted feeding may be especially useful for gut-related issues, including inflammatory bowel disease and acid reflux.
  • The fascinating way Dr. Panda is using human anecdote from his trial to ask new scientific questions he wouldn't think to ask and then going back to animal data to figure it out and how this unique approach forms a sort of closed loop pattern: animal → human feedback → back to animal for mechanism.
  • How labs doing caloric restriction research may have actually been reaping the benefits of time-restricted without realizing it as an incidental to their experimental design.
  • The revelation that 70% of FDA drugs are subject to circadian effects and are either less effective or more effective at certain times of the day.
  • The effect melatonin has on the pancreatic production of insulin and the insight this lends to why we should probably stop eating 3-4 hours before we go to bed.
  • The bizarre way circadian rhythms affects everything from susceptibility to UV damage to recovery from surgery to cancer risk.

Sign-up for Dr. Panda's mobile app study on time-restricted eating.

Grab the full show notes, timeline & glossary from the episode page now.

Did you enjoy this podcast? It was brought to you by people like you!
Click here to visit our crowdsponsor page where you can learn more about how you can support the podcast for as little or as much as you like.

Oct 30 2017

2hr 2mins

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Dominic D'Agostino, Ph.D. on Modified Atkins Diet, Ketosis, Supplemental Ketones and More

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This podcast is with Dr. Dominic D'Agostino, an assistant professor at the University of South Florida in Tampa and all around expert on ketosis.

In this podcast we discuss...
* Dom's efforts at teasing out the differences between induced nutritional ketosis (through a low carbohydrate, high fat diet) and ketosis from the dietary introduction of exogenous ketones, like beta-hydroxybutyrate, especially in the context of therapeutic and performance enhancing effects.
* His work on formulating ketone esters.
* The differences in tolerability between MCT (medium chain triglycerides) powders versus liquids, as well as the amount of supplemental MCT a person would need to consume in order to achieve mild ketosis without carbohydrate restriction.
* The differences between different types of ketogenic diets.
* The modified atkins diet which has been demonstrated to have similar efficacy to the classical ketogenic diet in the treatment of drug-resistant epilepsy and how it may be a slightly more practical option for achieving therapeutic nutritional ketosis.
* The importance of making the correct carbohydrate choices, even and maybe especially in the context of a ketogenic diet, with a diverse variety of raw vegetables being the most favorable.
* What keto adaptation is and what it means, at a physiological level, to be keto adapted and how this is distinguished from short periods of ketosis we experience in our day-to-day lives.
* Some of Dom's ideas around cycling various dietary strategies as a way of promoting metabolic flexibility.
* How ketones, when used as a source of energy, may result in a net reduction in the number of damaging reactive byproducts known as reactive oxygen species than what may be produced by other forms of energy metabolism while also producing more ATP from, proportionately, the same amount of oxygen.

... AND SO MUCH MORE. OH MY LORD THERE IS SO MUCH MORE. Enjoy!

Mar 23 2016

1hr 54mins

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Satchin Panda, Ph.D. on Time-Restricted Feeding and Its Effects on Obesity, Muscle Mass & Heart Health

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Dr. Rhonda Patrick speaks with Dr. Satchin Panda, a professor at the Salk Institute for Biological Studies in La Jolla California. Satchin's work deals specifically with the timing of food and it's relationship with our biological clocks governed by circadian rhythm and also the circadian rhythm in general.

In this video we discuss...

  • The fascinating history of experimentation that ultimately elucidated the location for the region of the brain necessary for a properly timed sleep-wake cycles.
  • The relationship between our body's "master clock" and it's many peripheral clocks.
  • Why infants sleep so intermittently, instead of resting for a longer, sustained duration like healthy young adults... and why this sustained rest also goes haywire in the elderly.
  • The fascinating work Dr. Panda took part in that lead to the discovery of a specialized light receptor in the eye that sets circadian rhythms and is known as melanopsin.
  • The important relationship between the relatively light insensitive melanopsin, which requires around 1,000 lux of light to be fully activated, and its control of the circadian clock by means of activation of the suprachiasmatic nucleus and suppression of melatonin.
  • The effects light exposure seems to have on next-day cortisol, a glucocorticoid hormone that regulates around 10-20% of the human protein-encoding genome.
  • The clever experimental design by which Dr. Panda and his colleagues discovered that certain circadian rhythms, especially of the liver, are entrained by when we eat, instead of how much light we get. This underlines the fact that, when managing are circadian rhythm, both elements are important!
  • One of the more surprising effects of time-restricted feeding in mice eating a so-called healthy diet: increases in muscle mass and even endurance in some cases.

Interested in trying out time-restricted feeding? Don't let your data points go to waste! You can try out time-restricted feeding and have a real impact on human research! Commit to 14 weeks and download Dr. Panda's mobile app to get started. Learn more at: mycircadianclock.org/participant

Jun 30 2016

1hr 39mins

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Sauna Use and Building Resilience to Stress with Dr. Rhonda Patrick

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In this episode Rhonda talks about how heat stress from using the sauna makes the body more resilient to the stresses of aging, possible reasons why one study associated sauna use with up to a 40% lower all-cause mortality as well as a 50% lower cardiovascular disease related mortality, how it enhances athletic endurance, staves off muscle atrophy, improves regrowth of muscle after disuse, and some of the profound effects on the brain, including the growth of new brain cells, improvement in focus, learning, and memory, and even potentially ameliorating depression and anxiety. She also talks about how BPA, PCBs, phthalates, and other metals are excreted through sweat. In addition, she addresses some practical applications like temperature and duration in the sauna, the difference between a dry, wet and infrared sauna, sauna timing, as well as other forms of heat stress such as steam showers, hot baths, and hot yoga.

Sep 11 2015

1hr 4mins

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Tim Ferriss on Biomarkers, Ketosis, Microbiome, and Lyme Disease

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Tim Ferriss, notorious self-experimenter, three-time New York Times bestselling author, an angel investor, startup advisor, and much, much, much more. Full audio transcript available at: http://wwww.foundmyfitness.com/timtranscript

Jul 20 2015

1hr 15mins

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Dr. Matthew Walker on Sleep for Enhancing Learning, Creativity, Immunity, and Glymphatic System

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Matthew Walker, Ph.D., is a professor of neuroscience and psychology at the University of California, Berkeley, and serves as the Director of the Center for Human Sleep Science. Formerly, Dr. Walker served as a professor of psychiatry at the Harvard Medical School.

Walker's research examines the impact of sleep on human health and disease. One area of interest focuses on identifying "vulnerability windows" during a person's life that make them more susceptible to amyloid-beta deposition from loss of slow wave sleep and, subsequently, Alzheimer's disease later in life.

Dr. Walker earned his undergraduate degree in neuroscience from the University of Nottingham, UK, and his Ph.D. in neurophysiology from the Medical Research Council, London, UK. He is the author of the New York Times best-selling book Why We Sleep: Unlocking the Power of Sleep and Dreams.

Click here to get this episode's show notes and transcript.

Watch nearly twenty-seven episode highlights on the new FMF Clips channel.

Did you enjoy this podcast? It was brought to you by people like you!
Click here to visit our crowdsponsor page where you can learn more about how to support the podcast for as little or as much as you like.

Submit your raw genetic data. You can find the APOE report and the Circadian Report at foundmyfitness.com/genetics.

Feb 28 2019

2hr 47mins

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Valter Longo, Ph.D. on the Fasting-Mimicking Diet & Fasting for Longevity, Cancer & Multiple Sclerosis

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This episode of the FoundMyFitness podcast features Dr. Valter Longo, a professor of gerontology and biological sciences and director of the longevity institute at the University of Southern California. Dr. Longo has made huge contributions to the field of aging, including the role of fasting and diet in longevity and healthspan in humans as well as metabolic fasting therapies for the treatment of human diseases.

In this podcast, Valter and I discuss...

  • The effects of prolonged fasting, which refers to 2-3 day fasting intervals in mice and 4-5 days in humans.
  • Dr. Longo’s work on the fasting-mimicking diet, which is 5 day restricted diet that is meant to simulate some of the biological effects of prolonged fasting while still allowing some food.
  • How clinical trials have demonstrated efficacy for this diet for type 2 diabetes, multiple sclerosis, and cancer patients.
  • Fasting as an inducer of differential stre�ss resistance, where it can simultaneously make cancer cells more sensitive to death while also making healthy cells more resistant to these same death stimuli (such as chemotherapy) which might otherwise induce cell death amongst healthy cells as collateral damage.
  • Fasting as a biological state which humans historically experienced with extreme regularity and we may ultimately need in order to mitigate various disease states.
  • The effects of prolonged fasting on the immune system, namely, how it clears away damaged white blood cells via autophagy and how this causes hematopoietic stem cells to self renew and make more stem cells and also produce new blood cells to fully replenish the white blood cell population.
  • How prolonged fasting causes a shift in the immune cell population towards one that is more representative of youth by normalizing the ratio of myeloid cells to lymphoid cells.
  • The positive effects of prolonged fasting and the fasting-mimicking diet on markers of systemic inflammation, blood glucose levels and other aging biomarkers.
  • The conclusions of Dr. Longo & Dr. Marcus Bock’s research comparing 1 week of the fasting-mimicking diet followed by 6 months of mediterranean diet to six months of a ketogenic diet in people with multiple sclerosis.
  • The strange, somewhat paradoxical role of autophagy genes in cancer progression and some of the open questions surrounding the exact role that these genes are playing.
  • Dr. Longo’s high level thoughts on metformin as an anti-aging drug.
  • How the growth hormone/IGF-1 axis is one of the most important genetic pathways in aging from yeast to worms to mice to humans.

You can learn more about the fasting-mimicking diet by visiting prolonfmd.com and you can receive an email when Dr. Longo published his upcoming book (English version) by following his profile on Amazon.

Sep 30 2016

1hr 22mins

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Refined Sugar and Its Effects on Mortality, the Brain, Cancer, Hormones & More

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If you're anything like me, having the facts straight can sometimes help you to push through the tough part of building new habits or breaking old bad ones. This podcast talks about the realities about what the science says surrounding the consumption of refined sugar.

Some of the facts may surprise you! We talk about the relationship of consumption of refined sugar with...

  • mortality and aging
  • brain function, memory, and neuroinflammation
  • the development of cancer and expression of oncogenes
  • sex hormones

... and, of special relevance, if you're hoping to cut out a soda habit, the real addictive properties of refined sugar consumption that mirror that of more well-known drugs of abuse.

Enjoyed this episode?
Learn how to support the podcast by visiting our crowdsponsor page.

Studies mentioned in podcast:
1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6, 7, 8, 9, 10, 11, 12, 13, 10, 11, 14, 15, 16, 17, 18, 19

Mar 16 2017

15mins

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Fasting Q&A with Dr. Rhonda Patrick and Mike Maser

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This episode features a Q&A session with Dr. Rhonda Patrick. The questions were sourced from social media followers of both FoundMyFitness and also Zero Fasting Tracker, a convenient mobile app used widely in the fasting community for logging.

In this 45-minute podcast, Dr. Patrick answers some of the most popular questions related to fasting, including:

  • What effects coffee, supplements, and amino acids have on fasting
  • Whether one method of fasting is more beneficial than others
  • What effect the consumption of exogenous ketones have on fasting
  • Whether it is good to exercise while fasting
  • The ideal way to break a fast
  • How fasting affects muscle mass
  • How fasting plays a role in the growth-longevity tradeoff

... and more!

Watch the video of the conversion or get the timeline here.

Learn how you can support the FoundMyFitness podcast for as little or as much as you like by clicking here.

Jan 09 2019

49mins

Play

Dr. Valter Longo on Resetting Autoimmunity and Rejuvenating Systems with Prolonged Fasting & the FMD

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This podcast is a spectacular round two podcast with Dr. Valter Longo. Dr. Longo is the current director of the longevity institute at the University of Southern California and also director of the Oncology and Longevity Program at the Institute of Molecular Oncology Foundation in Milan, Italy. Dr. Longo’s research focuses understanding the biological mechanisms that regulate the aging process, the role of fasting and diet in longevity and healthspan in humans as well as metabolic fasting therapies for the treatment of human diseases.

In this episode, we discuss...

  • What two seminal studies on chronic caloric restriction in primates from the 80s teach us about caloric restriction as a preventer of age-related disease, and how the effects of caloric restriction may actually be stronger when the diet that is being restricted is an unhealthy one – similar, in some ways, to the typical western diet.
  • How certain macronutrients influence the insulin/IGF-1/growth hormone axis interact to modulate aging in many cell types.
  • How mice and humans who have growth hormone receptor deficiencies have low circulating IGF-1 – as little as 10% of normal levels – and have reduced risk of diseases like cancer, diabetes, and age-related cognitive decline, hinting at what future research might reveal about the beneficial effects of prolonged fasting and fasting-mimicking diets through the downstream effects of periodic deprival of growth-related factors.
  • How the growth hormone / IGF-1 axis got a big boost early on in scientific interest when it was revealed that mice that have either deficiency in growth hormone itself or the growth hormone receptor live up to 40% longer and how this is accomplished through what is essentially a delaying of the decrepitudes of old age.
  • The origins of what Dr. Longo calls the fasting-mimicking diet – a 5-day diet focused on recapitulating some of the benefits of prolonged fasting, like dramatic changes in metabolic biomarkers, but without some of the drawbacks like reduced compliance and other risks that can come with multiple days of grueling strict water fasting in large, heterogeneous populations.
  • How periodic prolonged fasting or the fasting-mimicking diet may be able to render cancer cells more vulnerable while conferring stress resistance to healthy cells, a quality known as differential stress resistance. This can happen because of the way fasting interferes with what is known as oncogenic signaling.
  • The mixed results associated with the use of the ketogenic diet in treatment of cancer and how some cancers seem to be hurt by the metabolic switch of utilizing ketone bodies, which creates oxidative stress from the use of mitochondria, while other cancers seem to be able to use ketones effectively as an energy source, potentially accelerating their growth.
  • Some of the early but promising pre-trial clinical anecdata suggesting potential complementary roles for the ketogenic diet and the fasting-mimicking diet (FMD) used in conjunction with conventional treatments like chemotherapy or radiotherapy for certain cancers like gliomas.
  • In the context of aging, how the fasting mimicking diet has been shown to “reset” metabolism, driving down biomarkers associated with poor metabolic health, inflammation, and cardiovascular health.
  • How fasting, through the shrinking and then re-expansion of whole systems like the liver, kidneys, heart, and immune cells may represent a type of whole-system renewal that originated as a three-billion-year-old self-repair mode that was only activated during periods of famine or inconsistent food availability, but might now be dormant in people living in a modern world of regular food intake.
  • How Dr. Longo’s group has shown that, in animal models of multiple sclerosis and pharmacologically-induced type 1 diabetes, several cycles of the fasting-mimicking diet is able to reverse disease and restore healthful function. This mechanism also may generalize to erasing other diseases of autoimmunity through the destruction of autoimmune immune cells that are essentially reset through fresh differentiation from progenitors untainted by autoimmunity. A very exciting area of continued inquiry!
  • How shorter fasts may fail to approach some of the effects of periodic fasting and the fasting-mimicking diet by failing to achieve adequate glycogen depletion and ketogenesis.
  • Dr. Longo’s “top picks” for assessing biological age – markers a person can ask their doctor to measure to gauge how well they’re aging.
  • A sneak peek at what’s covered in Dr. Longo’s new book, The Longevity Diet.

… and so much more. Go to the timeline on the episode page to see a full breakdown.

Click here to visit the episode page and show notes now.

Did you enjoy this podcast? It was brought to you by people like you!
Click here to visit our crowdsponsor page where you can learn more about how you can support the podcast for as little or as much as you like.

Jul 09 2018

1hr 17mins

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The Sonnenburgs On How The Gut Microbiota Interacts With Our Bodies

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Dr. Justin Sonnenburg is an associate professor of microbiology and immunology at Stanford and Dr. Erica Sonnenburg is a senior research scientist in the Sonnenburg lab where they research many aspects the interaction between diet with the 100 trillion or so bacteria in the gut (specifically the colon) and how this impacts the health of the host (which in this case is a laboratory research mouse). In this episode we discuss the pivotal role fiber plays in fueling good bacteria in the gut to produce compounds that regulate the immune system including increasing the number of T regulatory cells, which are specialized types of immune cells that keep the immune system in check and prevent autoimmune responses, and how these compounds also increase other types of blood cells in the body in a process known as hematopoiesis. We also talk about how the lack of fiber in the typical American diet actually starves these good bacteria of their food. This has an effect not only on the immune system and autoimmune diseases but also results in the breakdown of the gut barrier, which leads to widespread inflammation and inflammatory diseases. Lastly, in this podcast, Dr. Erica Sonnenburg talks about how C-sections, have a negative effect on the infant’s gut due to the lack of exposure to bacteria present in the mother’s vaginal canal, and how the use of formula deprives the infant not only from the good bacteria present in Mom’s gut but also from special carbohydrates in breast milk that are good for the infant gut flora known as HMOs or human milk oligosaccharides.

Sep 03 2015

46mins

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Ray Cronise on Cold Thermogenesis, Intermittent Fasting, Weight Loss & Healthspan

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Dr. Rhonda Patrick speaks with Ray Cronise, a former NASA material scientist and cofounder of zero gravity, a company that offers weightless parabolic flights to consumers and researchers. In this episode, coming at the tail end of a rather extreme 23-day water fast for Ray, we discuss, perhaps unsurprisingly, some of the benefits that are associated with fasting! Ray talks about shifting one's perspective from looking at nutrition only through the lens of meeting day-to-day nutritional needs, and instead, also considering optimizing metabolism for longer-term effects as well, the importance of thinking about longevity in the context of functional healthspan, some of the similarities between the body’s physiological response to heat stress, cold stress, and exercise and so much more.

Learn more about Ray Cronise by visiting his website at hypothermics.com (raycronise.com) or by saying hello on twitter: twitter.com/raycronise.


Finally, Ray also has a book available for pre-order called "Our Broken Plate."

May 03 2016

2hr 4mins

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Peter Attia, M.D. on Macronutrient Thresholds for Longevity & Performance, Cancer & More

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This podcast is with Dr. Peter Attia. Peter is the founder of Attia Medical, a medical practice with offices in San Diego and New York City, focusing on the applied science of longevity and optimal performance.

You may have first heard about Dr. Attia from his two interviews that have been on the Tim Ferriss show, or from any number of popular presentations he's given that were filmed and put online. In addition to being a medical doctor, Dr. Attia has done research on the role of regulatory T cells in cancer regression and other immune-based therapies for cancer. Regulatory T cells have also been, in the past, referred to as suppressor T cells because of their role in actually attenuating or reducing the inflammatory response.

Dr. Attia and I share interests in all things related to longevity and healthspan, which includes the role of diet, nutrition, sleep, exercise, and stress. Dr. Attia is a medical doctor and specializes in implementing these strategies in clinical practice. You can learn more about that at his website www.attiamedical.com.

Mar 12 2016

1hr 9mins

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Rhonda Answers the Most Popular Questions About Vitamin D

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Dr. Rhonda Patrick answers some of the most popular questions regarding vitamin D including:
- How she decides how much vitamin D to supplement with
- Can you get too much vitamin D
- Is there a difference in vitamin D made from the sun versus a supplement
- What form of vitamin D is more bioavailable or absorbed better.

Aug 06 2015

30mins

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Dan Pardi on the Consequences of Sleep Loss & Ways to Improve Sleep

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Dan Pardi is a Ph.D candidate that researches sleep neurobiology at Stanford and University of Leiden. He is also co-founder of Dan’s Plan, an online wellness and technology company. In this podcast Rhonda and Dan discuss what the determinants of good sleep are including duration, timing and intensity,the major causes of less sleep in our society, the consequences of sleep loss including decreased purging of toxic substances from the brain, damage to neurons that signal to the brain to stay awake (and how this leads to that feeling that you need coffee in the morning), increased incidence of chronic diseases such as cancer and type 2 diabetes, cognitive and behavioral impairments, the impact on eating behaviors and weight gain. We also discuss what the optimal amount of sleep is, the importance of sleep timing, and keeping the same schedule as well as other ways to improve sleep.

Jul 28 2015

1hr 15mins

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Dr. Eric Verdin on Ketogenic Diet Longevity, Beta-Hydroxybutyrate & HDAC Inhibitors

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Eric M. Verdin, M.D. is the fifth president and chief executive officer of the Buck Institute for Research on Aging and is a professor of Medicine at UCSF. Dr. Verdin's laboratory focuses on the role of epigenetic regulators in the aging process, the role of metabolism and diet in aging and on the chronic diseases of aging, including Alzheimer’s, proteins that play a central role in linking caloric restriction to increased healthspan, and more recently a topic near and dear to many of you, ketogenesis. He's held faculty positions at the University of Brussels, the NIH and the Picower Institute for Medical Research.

In this episode, we discuss...

  • The effects of a low protein, cyclic ketogenic diet beginning in midlife (12 months of age) in male mice. The result? Increased healthspan and improved memory. Dr. Verdin explains how the cyclic ketogenic diet decreased insulin, IGF-1, and mTOR signaling and decreased fatty acid synthesis, and increased PPAR-alpha (which promotes beta-oxidation and mitochondrial biogenesis in muscle).
  • How this diet is somewhat qualitatively similar to fasting.
  • Some of the possible reasons why the cyclic ketogenic diet created such a striking improvement in memory even when compared to younger mice.
  • How beta-hydroxybutyrate, which is the major circulating ketone body during fasting and nutritional ketosis, may, in addition to being an energy source, regulate inflammation and gene expression by acting as a signaling molecule by inhibiting what are known as class 1 histone deacetylases (HDACs).
  • How this inhibition of class 1 HDACs leads to the increased expression of notorious longevity gene Foxo3, which may help explain why mice given an exogenous beta-hydroxybutyrate ester had lower markers of inflammation and oxidative damage, which are physiological contributors to the aging process.
  • The role of the nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide (NAD+) in the aging process and how replacing declining levels (or preventing them from declining in the first place) may prove to be an important anti-aging strategy.
  • Some of the reasons why NAD+ might be declining with age, its role in DNA damage repair via an enzyme known as PARP, and what the literature says about the NAD+ precursor nicotinamide riboside.
  • How a special class of enzymes called sirtuins, also known to be activated by caloric restriction and caloric restriction mimetic resveratrol, is tightly correlated with the level of NAD+ and how this "energetic currency" rises in response to fasting.
  • The role of the sirtuin enzymes in regulating mitochondrial function, neuronal functions, stem cell rejuvenation and why they may be important in delaying the aging process.

Grab the full show notes, timeline & glossary from the episode page now.

Did you enjoy this podcast? It was brought to you by people like you!
Click here to visit our crowdsponsor page where you can learn more about how you can support the podcast for as little or as much as you like.

Dec 13 2017

1hr 3mins

Play

Ron Krauss on Re-thinking Saturated Fat & LDL Cholesterol

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Dr. Ronald Krauss, M.D. is the director of atherosclerosis research at Children’s Hospital Oakland Research Institute, Adjunct Professor at UCSF and UC Berkeley. Dr. Krauss is really one of the pioneering scientists that changed the way we all think about cholesterol and saturated fat. He developed an assay that allows the quantification of low density lipoprotein particle size and concentration (known to the wider world as LDL cholesterol) based on a technique which determines the size of the particle based on physics...meaning the speed at which it flies through the air. In this episode, Rhonda and Ron discuss what HDL and LDL cholesterol are, what they do in the body and how they play a role in heart disease. We talk about what small, dense LDL particles are, how they form, what effect eating saturated fat versus refined carbohydrates have on LDL particle size and heart disease risk and more generally what the main risk factors for heart disease are. Ron also talks about the good, bad and the ugly of LDL-lowering drugs known as statins and much more.

Aug 27 2015

1hr 23mins

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Does Saturated Fat Cause Heart Disease?

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Today we try to answer or at least explore a big question in the world of health: does saturated fat cause heart disease?

This is not an unreasonable concern given the fact that there have been several associative studies that have found a link between saturated fat and heart disease, which is, no doubt, a fat that we find abundantly in the typical American diet since it is richly found in staples like fatty beef, pork, butter, cheese, and other dairy products.

And if you're in the United States and you're not at least a little concerned about heart disease, you may be asleep at the wheel since it's currently our leading cause of death.

Studies mentioned in this episode:

Genetics resources:

Feb 10 2017

24mins

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Does Meat Consumption Cause Cancer?

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Does meat consumption cause cancer? Or, put another way… does avoiding meat help prevent cancer?

If you aren't already savvy to the topic, this may sound more absurd than it should. Here's why: there have been many, many, many correlative studies that have found that higher meat consumption is associated with a significantly higher risk of cancer and cancer mortality.

To try to answer this question we end up going deep into discussing plausible mechanisms that might help explain this phenomenon and, indeed, discussing a little bit of cancer biology as well.

Some of the publications mentioned in this podcast:

Jan 28 2017

15mins

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Roland Griffiths, Ph.D. on Psilocybin, Psychedelic Therapies & Mystical Experiences

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Dr. Roland R. Griffiths is a clinical pharmacologist at Johns Hopkins and has been researching mood-altering compounds for over 40 years. As an unusually prolific scientist, having published over 360-times, he's also responsible for having started the psilocybin research program at Johns Hopkins nearly 2 decades ago.

In this 1-hour and 15-minute podcast, we discuss…

  • 00:01:03 - the broader story of Dr. Griffiths 40 years of mood-altering drug research, including what got him started and how taking up a meditation practice ultimately influenced the eventual focuses of his research.
  • 00:02:22 - the effect psilocybin has had in clinical trials in eliciting so-called mystical experiences that can act as a long-term catalyst for meaningful spiritual change and is amenable to being reproduced and clinically studied in a prospective manner.
  • 00:03:45 - what distinguishes psilocybin from other drugs, particularly when reflecting backward on the experience months afterward.
  • 00:05:11 - the process by which Dr. Griffiths and his team create an appropriate “setting” and facilitate feelings of safety for those participating in his trials.
  • 00:06:42 - the elusive fundamental nature of a classical psychedelic experience whereby people often simultaneously describe the experience as ineffable (indescribable) but yet also often assign it a truth value that may even exceed that of everyday consensus reality.
  • 00:07:36 - a description of the core features of a classical mystical experience that overlap with those found in a mystical experience induced by psilocybin.
  • 00:08:58 - the qualities of the experience that Dr. Griffiths believes to most underlie the “reorganizational” potential it can have.
  • 00:10:55 - the interesting potential areas for scientific exploration that the reproducibility of the psilocybin experience makes the substance amenable to.
  • 00:11:25 - the promise psilocybin has shown as an effective therapeutic for anxiety and depression in patients with life-threatening cancer and also treatment-resistant depression in otherwise healthy patients (00:18:46).
  • 00:13:04 - the lack of rigor in the very early trials on these compounds and the way in which cultural stigma surrounding psychedelic drugs ultimately played a role in impeding real, substantive clinical research for decades afterward.
  • 00:16:31 - the long-term resilience of the antidepressant and anxiolytic effect, lasting six months and possibly even longer.
  • 00:21:01 - the effect psilocybin has demonstrated in animal studies to increase hippocampal neurogenesis and enhance extinction of trace fear conditioning.
  • 00:23:07 - the somewhat unintuitive neurobiological mechanism that may tie together some of the antidepressant properties of both psilocybin and ketamine, an anesthetic currently being studied as a rapid-onset antidepressant.
  • 00:25:16 - whether or not the mystical subjective experiences are necessary for drugs like psilocybin to exert their antidepressant or anxiolytic effects.
  • 00:26:43 - what the default mode network is and what its pattern of activity is in depression, long-term meditators, and after the acute use of psilocybin.
  • 00:32:16 - the hard problem of consciousness.
  • 00:37:26 - the challenge of finding the neurological correlates to match the phenomenology of individual’s subjective experiences.
  • 00:38:16 - the promise psilocybin has shown in a small trial on smoking cessation where 60% of the treatment group were still abstinent a year afterward and plans Dr. Griffiths has to expand this area of research
  • 00:41:10 - the possibility that the “reorganizational nature” of these experiences may open up new avenues as trials continue to try to embed the experience within different therapeutic contexts.
  • 00:44:02 - the roadmap to FDA approval for use of psilocybin as a medication, particularly in the context of cancer-associated depression and anxiety.
  • 00:45:05 - the risks inherent in taking psilocybin and the frequency of self-reported negative experiences in the general population.
  • 00:47:22 - the criteria Dr. Griffiths and his colleagues use when screening for volunteers to participate in his studies involving psilocybin.
  • 00:49:21 - the inability for clinicians to predict who is at risk of having challenging experiences defined by fear and anxiety (“bad trip”) and whether or not it is desirable, in terms of achieving a therapeutic outcome, to prevent these types of experiences altogether or not.
  • 00:51:43 - the sort of dosages used in the trials.
  • 00:54:45 - the clever ways devised by Dr. Griffiths to placebo control trials where expectation itself can affect outcome.
  • 00:57:45 - some of the interesting anecdotes gleaned from Dr. Griffiths’ working with long-term meditators participating in the psilocybin trial.
  • 01:05:13 - a brief discussion about some of the other psychedelics besides psilocybin, such as salvia divinorum and DMT (at 01:10:24).
  • 01:12:08 - the historical indigenous use of psychedelics in various cultures spread throughout the world.

Watch this as a video on YouTube.

Jan 19 2017

1hr 17mins

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NAD+, Nicotinamide Riboside, and Nicotinamide Mononucleotide with Rhonda Patrick

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In this episode, Rhonda describes NAD+ (perhaps one of the most important molecules in the human body), why it is so important for aging, and why it declines with age. She discusses some of the popular NAD+ boosters like nicotinamide riboside and nicotinamide mononucleotide, explains what the animal and human data say, discusses some of the concerns associated with using these boosters, and provides some concluding thoughts.

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Nov 13 2019

35mins

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Dr. David Sinclair on Informational Theory of Aging, Nicotinamide Mononucleotide, Resveratrol & More

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David A. Sinclair, PhD, is a professor in the Department of Genetics at Harvard Medical School and co-director of the Paul F. Glenn Center for the Biological Mechanisms of Aging. He is the co-founder of the journal Aging, where he serves as co-chief editor.

Dr. Sinclair's work focuses on understanding the mechanisms that drive human aging and identifying ways to slow or reverse aging's effects. In particular, he has examined the role of sirtuins in disease and aging, with special emphasis on how sirtuin activity is modulated by compounds produced by the body as well as those consumed in the diet, such as resveratrol. His work has implications for human metabolism, mitochondrial and neurological health, and cancer.

In this episode, we discuss...

  • 00:17:59 - How caloric restriction, fasting, and exercise increase levels of a molecule called NAD+ and how this activates sirtuins, a family of genes involved in longevity.
  • 00:21:47 - How NAD+ levels and sirtuin activities decrease with age, and how animal studies suggest that raising cellular NAD+ levels can trick the body into thinking it is younger.
  • 00:23:03 - How resveratrol enhances the binding of sirtuins to NAD+ thus making sirtuins more easily activated for a longer period.
  • 00:27:36 - We also discuss Steve Horvath's epigenetic aging clock, which measures DNA methylation groups, and how they may play a role in widespread gene regulation, including sirtuin genes, and how NAD+ may participate in resetting the clock.
  • 00:31:54 - How the signal that resets the epigenetic clock in mice involves the Yamanaka factors -- a group of four transcription factors that can reprogram an adult cell to become a pluripotent stem cell that can form any cell type.
  • 00:46:48 - How resveratrol is a xenohormetic compound and is produced when grape plants are stressed either in response to fungus or lack of water.
  • 00:55:35 - How a phase 2 clinical trial involving people with Alzheimer's disease showed resveratrol improved cognitive function, improved cerebrospinal fluid amyloid beta levels, lowered markers of activated microglia, and more.
  • 00:58:03 - How both nicotinamide riboside and nicotinamide mononucleotide have been shown to improve cognitive function and brain pathology in mice that have been engineered to get a disease similar to Alzheimer's disease.
  • 01:06:19 - How older mice that were given nicotinamide mononucleotide experienced delayed aging in the liver, muscle, immune cells, eyes, and bones, but those that took a lower dose had improved mitochondrial function and enhanced physical performance.
  • 01:01:22 - How there may be challenges in translating animal studies on nicotinamide riboside and nicotinamide mononucleotide to humans particularly due to the need to determine the dose required to promote health benefits.
  • And so much more!

Click here to get this episode's show notes and transcript

Watch this episode's highlights on the FMF Clips channel

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Nov 06 2019

1hr 22mins

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Sauna Use as an Exercise Mimetic for Heart and Healthspan

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This podcast is the audio from a presentation Dr. Rhonda Patrick gave on how the sauna may be an exercise mimetic for heat health and healthspan. Sauna use has emerged as a means to increase lifespan and improve overall health, based on compelling data from observational, interventional, and mechanistic studies. Listen in to find out more.

Click here to get the episode show notes and video.

Watch the episode with cardiologist and sauna scientist Dr. Jari Laukkanen.

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Sep 16 2019

46mins

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Exercise as a Treatment for Depression

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In this short episode, Dr. Patrick discusses some of the compelling science including observational studies, randomized controlled trials, and human mechanistic studies that suggests exercise is a powerful tool for preventing or managing the symptoms of depression and mental illness. Moreover, she talks about the specific types of exercise and exercise parameters that evidence suggests might be the most helpful for depression.

This podcast started its life as a video, so make sure to check out the full video or the references and episode notes on the episode page.

Click here to get this episode's show notes and video.

Click here to visit the in-depth depression topic page.

See the full interview with Dr. Charles Raison.

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Aug 03 2019

17mins

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Dr. Elissa Epel on Telomeres and the Role of Stress Biology in Cellular Aging

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Elissa Epel, PhD, is a Professor in the Department of Psychiatry at the University of California, San Francisco where she serves as the director of the Aging, Metabolism, and Emotions Center. Her research centers on the mechanisms of healthy aging and the associations between stress, telomere length, addiction, eating, and metabolic health.

In this episode, we dive deep into the world of telomeres, the length of which is one of the useful biomarkers scientists have for getting a sense of the differences between how individuals or groups of individuals age. Telomere shortening is both a cause and a symptom of aging and plays key roles in not only how long we live, but in how well. Lifestyle factors such as poor nutrition and smoking can accelerate telomere shortening by generating oxidative stress and inflammation.

Click here to get this episode's show notes and transcript.

Watch this episode's highlights on the FMF Clips channel.

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Jun 10 2019

1hr 13mins

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Dr. Matthew Walker on Sleep for Enhancing Learning, Creativity, Immunity, and Glymphatic System

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Matthew Walker, Ph.D., is a professor of neuroscience and psychology at the University of California, Berkeley, and serves as the Director of the Center for Human Sleep Science. Formerly, Dr. Walker served as a professor of psychiatry at the Harvard Medical School.

Walker's research examines the impact of sleep on human health and disease. One area of interest focuses on identifying "vulnerability windows" during a person's life that make them more susceptible to amyloid-beta deposition from loss of slow wave sleep and, subsequently, Alzheimer's disease later in life.

Dr. Walker earned his undergraduate degree in neuroscience from the University of Nottingham, UK, and his Ph.D. in neurophysiology from the Medical Research Council, London, UK. He is the author of the New York Times best-selling book Why We Sleep: Unlocking the Power of Sleep and Dreams.

Click here to get this episode's show notes and transcript.

Watch nearly twenty-seven episode highlights on the new FMF Clips channel.

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Feb 28 2019

2hr 47mins

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Fasting Q&A with Dr. Rhonda Patrick and Mike Maser

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This episode features a Q&A session with Dr. Rhonda Patrick. The questions were sourced from social media followers of both FoundMyFitness and also Zero Fasting Tracker, a convenient mobile app used widely in the fasting community for logging.

In this 45-minute podcast, Dr. Patrick answers some of the most popular questions related to fasting, including:

  • What effects coffee, supplements, and amino acids have on fasting
  • Whether one method of fasting is more beneficial than others
  • What effect the consumption of exogenous ketones have on fasting
  • Whether it is good to exercise while fasting
  • The ideal way to break a fast
  • How fasting affects muscle mass
  • How fasting plays a role in the growth-longevity tradeoff

... and more!

Watch the video of the conversion or get the timeline here.

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Jan 09 2019

49mins

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Dr. Dale Bredesen on Preventing and Reversing Alzheimer's Disease

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Dale E. Bredesen, M.D., is a professor of neurology at the Easton Laboratories for Neurodegenerative Disease Research at the David Geffen School of Medicine at the University of California, Los Angeles (UCLA).

Dr. Bredesen's laboratory focuses on identifying and understanding basic mechanisms underlying the neurodegenerative process and the translation of this knowledge into effective treatments for Alzheimer's disease and other neurodegenerative conditions. He has collaborated on the publication of more than 220 academic research papers.

His work has culminated in the development of a protocol called ReCODE – reversal of cognitive decline – currently used by over 3,000 patients with the goal of not just preventing, but reversing Alzheimer's disease and mild cognitive impairment.

Click here to get the episode's show notes and transcript.

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You can find the APOE report at foundmyfitness.com/genetics.

Oct 01 2018

1hr 14mins

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Dr. Valter Longo on Resetting Autoimmunity and Rejuvenating Systems with Prolonged Fasting & the FMD

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This podcast is a spectacular round two podcast with Dr. Valter Longo. Dr. Longo is the current director of the longevity institute at the University of Southern California and also director of the Oncology and Longevity Program at the Institute of Molecular Oncology Foundation in Milan, Italy. Dr. Longo’s research focuses understanding the biological mechanisms that regulate the aging process, the role of fasting and diet in longevity and healthspan in humans as well as metabolic fasting therapies for the treatment of human diseases.

In this episode, we discuss...

  • What two seminal studies on chronic caloric restriction in primates from the 80s teach us about caloric restriction as a preventer of age-related disease, and how the effects of caloric restriction may actually be stronger when the diet that is being restricted is an unhealthy one – similar, in some ways, to the typical western diet.
  • How certain macronutrients influence the insulin/IGF-1/growth hormone axis interact to modulate aging in many cell types.
  • How mice and humans who have growth hormone receptor deficiencies have low circulating IGF-1 – as little as 10% of normal levels – and have reduced risk of diseases like cancer, diabetes, and age-related cognitive decline, hinting at what future research might reveal about the beneficial effects of prolonged fasting and fasting-mimicking diets through the downstream effects of periodic deprival of growth-related factors.
  • How the growth hormone / IGF-1 axis got a big boost early on in scientific interest when it was revealed that mice that have either deficiency in growth hormone itself or the growth hormone receptor live up to 40% longer and how this is accomplished through what is essentially a delaying of the decrepitudes of old age.
  • The origins of what Dr. Longo calls the fasting-mimicking diet – a 5-day diet focused on recapitulating some of the benefits of prolonged fasting, like dramatic changes in metabolic biomarkers, but without some of the drawbacks like reduced compliance and other risks that can come with multiple days of grueling strict water fasting in large, heterogeneous populations.
  • How periodic prolonged fasting or the fasting-mimicking diet may be able to render cancer cells more vulnerable while conferring stress resistance to healthy cells, a quality known as differential stress resistance. This can happen because of the way fasting interferes with what is known as oncogenic signaling.
  • The mixed results associated with the use of the ketogenic diet in treatment of cancer and how some cancers seem to be hurt by the metabolic switch of utilizing ketone bodies, which creates oxidative stress from the use of mitochondria, while other cancers seem to be able to use ketones effectively as an energy source, potentially accelerating their growth.
  • Some of the early but promising pre-trial clinical anecdata suggesting potential complementary roles for the ketogenic diet and the fasting-mimicking diet (FMD) used in conjunction with conventional treatments like chemotherapy or radiotherapy for certain cancers like gliomas.
  • In the context of aging, how the fasting mimicking diet has been shown to “reset” metabolism, driving down biomarkers associated with poor metabolic health, inflammation, and cardiovascular health.
  • How fasting, through the shrinking and then re-expansion of whole systems like the liver, kidneys, heart, and immune cells may represent a type of whole-system renewal that originated as a three-billion-year-old self-repair mode that was only activated during periods of famine or inconsistent food availability, but might now be dormant in people living in a modern world of regular food intake.
  • How Dr. Longo’s group has shown that, in animal models of multiple sclerosis and pharmacologically-induced type 1 diabetes, several cycles of the fasting-mimicking diet is able to reverse disease and restore healthful function. This mechanism also may generalize to erasing other diseases of autoimmunity through the destruction of autoimmune immune cells that are essentially reset through fresh differentiation from progenitors untainted by autoimmunity. A very exciting area of continued inquiry!
  • How shorter fasts may fail to approach some of the effects of periodic fasting and the fasting-mimicking diet by failing to achieve adequate glycogen depletion and ketogenesis.
  • Dr. Longo’s “top picks” for assessing biological age – markers a person can ask their doctor to measure to gauge how well they’re aging.
  • A sneak peek at what’s covered in Dr. Longo’s new book, The Longevity Diet.

… and so much more. Go to the timeline on the episode page to see a full breakdown.

Click here to visit the episode page and show notes now.

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Jul 09 2018

1hr 17mins

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Dr. Charles Raison on Depression, the Immune-Brain Interface & Whole-Body Hyperthermia

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Charles Raison, M.D. is a professor at the School of Human Ecology at the University of Wisconsin-Madison and Founding Director of the Center for Compassion Studies in the College of Social and Behavioral Sciences at the University of Arizona. Dr. Raison’s research focuses on inflammation and the development of depression in response to illness and stress. He also examines the physical and behavioral effects of compassion training on the brain, inflammatory processes, and behavior as well as the effect of heat stress as a potentially therapeutic intervention major depressive disorder.

In this nearly 2-hour episode, we discuss the extremely dynamic interaction that the immune system has with mood, behavior, and the brain, as well as the potential that whole-body hyperthermia, a research technique mostly indistinguishable from sauna use, may have for the treatment of clinical depression.

Additionally, we also talk about….

  • How depression as a disease may be subdivided based on whether or not there is involvement of chronic inflammation and how this could influence how it should be treated.
  • The changes in functional brain connectivity that are associated with the high inflammation subtype of depression.
  • The physiological similarities a sauna, hot bath, steam shower, and hot yoga have with whole-body hyperthermia from the standpoint of potentially therapeutically boosting body temperature.
  • Preliminary evidence that increased expression of a certain heat shock protein in the brain may influence behavior by protecting against stress-induced depression.

… and so much more. Go to the timeline on the episode page to see a full breakdown.

Click here to visit the episode page and show notes now.

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Mar 19 2018

1hr 58mins

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Dr. Eric Verdin on Ketogenic Diet Longevity, Beta-Hydroxybutyrate & HDAC Inhibitors

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Eric M. Verdin, M.D. is the fifth president and chief executive officer of the Buck Institute for Research on Aging and is a professor of Medicine at UCSF. Dr. Verdin's laboratory focuses on the role of epigenetic regulators in the aging process, the role of metabolism and diet in aging and on the chronic diseases of aging, including Alzheimer’s, proteins that play a central role in linking caloric restriction to increased healthspan, and more recently a topic near and dear to many of you, ketogenesis. He's held faculty positions at the University of Brussels, the NIH and the Picower Institute for Medical Research.

In this episode, we discuss...

  • The effects of a low protein, cyclic ketogenic diet beginning in midlife (12 months of age) in male mice. The result? Increased healthspan and improved memory. Dr. Verdin explains how the cyclic ketogenic diet decreased insulin, IGF-1, and mTOR signaling and decreased fatty acid synthesis, and increased PPAR-alpha (which promotes beta-oxidation and mitochondrial biogenesis in muscle).
  • How this diet is somewhat qualitatively similar to fasting.
  • Some of the possible reasons why the cyclic ketogenic diet created such a striking improvement in memory even when compared to younger mice.
  • How beta-hydroxybutyrate, which is the major circulating ketone body during fasting and nutritional ketosis, may, in addition to being an energy source, regulate inflammation and gene expression by acting as a signaling molecule by inhibiting what are known as class 1 histone deacetylases (HDACs).
  • How this inhibition of class 1 HDACs leads to the increased expression of notorious longevity gene Foxo3, which may help explain why mice given an exogenous beta-hydroxybutyrate ester had lower markers of inflammation and oxidative damage, which are physiological contributors to the aging process.
  • The role of the nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide (NAD+) in the aging process and how replacing declining levels (or preventing them from declining in the first place) may prove to be an important anti-aging strategy.
  • Some of the reasons why NAD+ might be declining with age, its role in DNA damage repair via an enzyme known as PARP, and what the literature says about the NAD+ precursor nicotinamide riboside.
  • How a special class of enzymes called sirtuins, also known to be activated by caloric restriction and caloric restriction mimetic resveratrol, is tightly correlated with the level of NAD+ and how this "energetic currency" rises in response to fasting.
  • The role of the sirtuin enzymes in regulating mitochondrial function, neuronal functions, stem cell rejuvenation and why they may be important in delaying the aging process.

Grab the full show notes, timeline & glossary from the episode page now.

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Dec 13 2017

1hr 3mins

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Dr. Satchin Panda on Practical Implementation of Time-Restricted Eating & Shift Work Strategies

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This is a nearly 2-hour round 2 episode with none other than Dr. Satchin Panda of the Salk Institute!

At nearly two hours of dialog, this episode touches on a lot of material but has a special focus on practical implementation of time-restricted eating. Put another way, I kept a list of a lot of questions that seem to keep coming up and present them directly to Satchin.

We talk about dealing with shift work, black coffee when fasting, and some of the distinctions between Satchin's approach to time-restricted eating which is influenced by his deep background in circadian biology and more conventional protocols like 16:8 that many people are familiar with.

In addition to these important and very practical how-to tidbits, we dive into lots of interesting new territory as well, including...

  • How human anecdote and animal evidence suggests time-restricted feeding may be especially useful for gut-related issues, including inflammatory bowel disease and acid reflux.
  • The fascinating way Dr. Panda is using human anecdote from his trial to ask new scientific questions he wouldn't think to ask and then going back to animal data to figure it out and how this unique approach forms a sort of closed loop pattern: animal → human feedback → back to animal for mechanism.
  • How labs doing caloric restriction research may have actually been reaping the benefits of time-restricted without realizing it as an incidental to their experimental design.
  • The revelation that 70% of FDA drugs are subject to circadian effects and are either less effective or more effective at certain times of the day.
  • The effect melatonin has on the pancreatic production of insulin and the insight this lends to why we should probably stop eating 3-4 hours before we go to bed.
  • The bizarre way circadian rhythms affects everything from susceptibility to UV damage to recovery from surgery to cancer risk.

Sign-up for Dr. Panda's mobile app study on time-restricted eating.

Grab the full show notes, timeline & glossary from the episode page now.

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Oct 30 2017

2hr 2mins

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Dr. Guido Kroemer on Autophagy, Caloric Restriction Mimetics, Fasting & Protein Acetylation

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Dr. Guido Kroemer is a professor at the University of Paris Descartes and an expert in immunology, cancer biology, aging, and autophagy. He is one of the most highly cited authors in the field of cell biology and was the most highly cited cell biologist for the period between 2007 and 2013. Especially notable among his contributions: he was the first to discover that the permeabilization of mitochondrial membranes is a concrete step towards apoptotic cell death.

This episode is decidedly focused on autophagy, an important cellular program that is inducible by dietary fasting and has broad implications for aging and cancer. Autophagy discussion includes:

  • How the 3 main signals that activate autophagy all involve nutrient sensing (00:09:09).
  • The role of different types of fasting and nutrient deprivation in autophagy (00:20:55).
  • How different types of exercise can induce autophagy (00:24:35).
  • How a specific type of autophagy called mitophagy keeps mitochondria healthy (00:36:29).
  • How autophagy has been shown to slow cellular aging (00:33:07).
  • How autophagy prevents neurodegenerative diseases by clearing away protein aggregates (00:39:38).
  • The role of autophagy in cancer as a possible double-edged sword (00:48:29).
  • How certain compounds known as caloric restriction mimetics (or fasting mimetics) including resveratrol, spermidine, hydroxycitrate can induce autophagy by tricking the cell through the modulation of one or more of the 3 main autophagy signaling pathways (00:54:52).

Visit Dr. Guido Kroemer's website.

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Watch the full video on YouTube.

Jul 31 2017

1hr 10mins

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Dr. Jari Laukkanen on Sauna Use for the Prevention of Cardiovascular & Alzheimer’s Disease

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This podcast features Jari Laukkanen, M.D., Ph.D., a cardiologist and scientist at the Institute of Public Health and Clinical Nutrition, University of Eastern Finland, Kuopio. Dr. Laukkanen has been conducting long-term trials looking at the health effects of sauna use in a population of over 2,000 middle-aged men in Finland. The results? Massive reductions in mortality and memory disease in a dose-response fashion at 20-year follow-up.

In this almost 25-minute episode, we talk about...

  • 00:00:37 - The association between sauna use and fatal cardiovascular outcomes.
  • 00:00:37 - The inverse association between cardiovascular-related deaths and all-cause deaths.
  • 00:02:00 - How men that used the sauna 2-3 times per week had a 27% lower cardiovascular-related mortality than men that used the sauna 1 time per week.
  • 00:02:15 - How men that used the sauna 4-7 times per week had a 50% lower cardiovascular-related mortality than men that used the sauna one time per week.
  • 00:02:50 - The confounding factors Dr. Laukkanen and his colleagues had to adjust for, such as physical exercise, cholesterol, obesity, smoking, alcohol consumption, socioeconomic status.
  • 00:03:26 - The various types of cardiac-related deaths their reductions were shown in, including coronary artery disease, sudden cardiac death and more.
  • 00:05:00 - How one of the major mechanisms by which sauna use improves heart health is by reducing blood pressure and incident hypertension.
  • 00:05:40 - The mechanisms by which the sauna lowers blood pressure, which can occur via balancing of the autonomic nervous system, improvements in blood vessel function, decreases in arterial stiffness and compliance of arteries.
  • 00:06:17 - The increases in heart rate seen with sauna use that make it similar to moderate aerobic exercise in some ways (up to 150 beats/min!).
  • 00:06:56 - How time spent in the sauna was one of the more important factors for risk reduction with at least 20 minutes per session in a 174 F (79C) 4-7 times per week being a "sweet spot."
  • 00:09:29 - The inverse, dose-response relationship between sauna use and all-cause mortality: 24% for 2-3 times per week, 40% for 4-7 times.
  • 00:10:00 - His newest study that now shows a reduction in risk in a similar dose-response fashion for dementia and Alzheimer’s disease by around 65% for the most frequent sauna users.
  • 00:10:18 - The way sauna use increases heat shock proteins which repair damaged proteins and prevent protein aggregates and how this could end up being at least one potential molecular mechanism at play.
  • 00:13:03 - How sauna use increases growth hormone by 200-330%.
  • 00:14:10 - The patterns of sauna use and especially whether to sauna before or after you weight train.
  • 00:15:55 - The effect of sauna on mood which may be from improvements in cardiorespiratory fitness and possibly endorphins as well.
  • 00:18:39 - How sauna improves heart rate variability.
  • 00:20:04 - Cold-water immersion after sauna and a few cautionary words for extreme contrast therapy in people with a pre-existing heart condition that is currently unstable.

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Jun 15 2017

27mins

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Judith Campisi, Ph.D. on Cellular Senescence, Mitochondrial Dysfunction, Cancer & Aging

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Dr. Judith Campisi is a professor of biogerentology at the Buck Institute for Research on Aging and a co-editor in chief of the Aging Journal.

As an expert on cellular senescence, the discussion involves a lot of talk about aging and cancer, where senescence plays a very important fundamental role. What are some of the strategies we might use in the future to prevent senescent cells? What causes them in the first place?

In this 1-hour long conversation, we discuss a great number of very interesting things including:

  • Why diseases of aging, despite occurring in vary diverse tissue types, all begin to crop up simultaneously after 50 or 60 years of life.
  • What the fundamental molecular processes of aging are and what some of the on-going research and general thoughts are surrounding these processes.
  • What senescence is and the evolutionary biology explanation for why we have the mechanism of cellular senescence in the first place.
  • The infiltration of immune cells into our tissues that occurs as a function of aging and the role of damaged or senescent cells in attracting these immune cells.
  • The changes in gut permeability that happens with age and how that may increase our susceptibility to chronic, low-level inflammation.
  • The role of senescent cells in cancer metastasis and progression.
  • The clearance of senescent cells as a valid life extension strategy.
  • How mitochondrial dysfunction, even in the absence of DNA damage, can cause cells to undergo senescence.
  • The interesting observation that senescence from damage versus energy crisis (failed mitochondria) demonstrates a different and unique phenotype of cellular senescence.
  • The effects prolonged fasting may have on the clearance of senescent cells.
  • How periodic prolonged fasts might mimic some of the effects associated with an mTOR dampening drug like rapamycin.
  • How the secretions of senescent cells can affect the regenerative capacity of stem cells.
  • The practicality of a consumer available clinical assays for DNA damage and the challenge of assessing tissue-specific senescence without the use of invasive biopsy.
  • The effect of so-called fasting mimetic compounds (e.g. hydroxycitrate, resveratrol & spermidine) on senescent cells.
  • And believe it or not much more!

Studies mentioned: 1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6, 7, 8, 9, 10, 11, 12, 13, 14, 15, 16, 17

Learn more about Dr. Judy Campisi.

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Apr 28 2017

1hr 8mins

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Gordon Lithgow, Ph.D. on Protein Aggregation, Iron Overload & the Search for Longevity Compounds

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Dr. Gordon Lithgow of the Buck Institute for Research on Aging tells us about worms! Well, more accurately, his lab does research on nematodes, particularly an animal known as C. elegans.

This unassuming scientific model has a lot of important advantages for science: they can be frozen and subsequently thawed and retain viability, they are extremely well understood down to the precise number of cells in their body and the wiring of their nervous system, known as the connectome. Additionally, they have a short lifespan and are cheap to work with. Why would that be advantageous, you may ask?

This is where Dr. Lithgow's work on the Caenorhabditis Intervention Testing Program comes in. Short-lived organisms give Dr. Lithgow and his colleagues the opportunity to see how their biology responds to compounds in different contexts and to do so cheaply and rapidly. Think a vitamin, pharmaceutical or one of any number of other compounds may have a broad effect on longevity? Try it on Caenorhabditis first! Taking this approach allows the broad screening of compounds that might not otherwise get its chance in the limelight if science were limited to only working with rodents, for example.

But what could nematodes possibly have in common with us? The answer to the question is... gene homology! In fact, around 35% of C. elegans genes have a corresponding human version.

In this over 40-minute long conversation with professor Dr. Gordon Lithgow, we talk about...

  • Nematodes... especially C. elegans, of course!
  • The synergistic way in which research in lower organisms (C. elegans in this case) works together with rodent research to better understand the biology of aging and identify potential therapeutics.
  • The story behind the Caenorhabditis Intervention Testing Program, a multi-institutional effort using the advantages of C. elegans short lifespan to screen for potential compounds that may increase lifespan. We also discuss the more expensive-but-closer-to-humans version of this program known just the Intervention Testing Program.
  • The various qualities of C. elegans, especially as related to science's deep knowledge of the organism, that make it a perfect fit for this type of research.
  • Some of the early experiences that actually lead to my early interest in the aging field and how it actually holds a bit in common with Gordon's story today.
  • The role of protein aggregation as a possible fundamental mechanism of aging... even beyond its more established role in neurodegenerative diseases.
  • Some of the fascinating research surrounding mild heat stress as a means to increase lifespan in lower organisms.
  • Some of Gordon's research into the effects of metal accumulation, particularly iron, on aging in lower organisms and how, in humans, it may be important to approach the intake of these minerals with care.
  • The interplay between genes that influence iron-binding and the development of Alzheimer's disease.
  • Some of Gordon's research into the (perhaps surprising) effect of vitamin D on aging in C. elegans and, particularly, on the solubility of proteins... the loss of which is a feature of aging of particular interest.
  • The critical involvement of the Nrf2 stress-response pathway in conferring benefits of vitamin D in worms... a pathway many of you may know about from previous discussions of sulforaphane, a robust activator of Nrf2 in humans.
  • Some of the challenges encountered with ensuring standardization of protocols across all of the participating labs in the Caenorhabditis Intervention Testing Program.
  • The amazing genetic diversity represented in soil-dwelling nematodes and how this is also an advantage in longevity research.
  • The interesting possibility that certain compounds may have a different overall effect on lifespan or healthspan that is dependent within certain contexts (e.g. environmentally stressed or not).

Learn more about Dr. Gordon Lithgow.

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You can learn more about whether you have some of the specific polymorphisms discussed in this podcast, including ones related to the hemochromatosis and transferrin genes, by clicking here.

Apr 04 2017

46mins

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Refined Sugar and Its Effects on Mortality, the Brain, Cancer, Hormones & More

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If you're anything like me, having the facts straight can sometimes help you to push through the tough part of building new habits or breaking old bad ones. This podcast talks about the realities about what the science says surrounding the consumption of refined sugar.

Some of the facts may surprise you! We talk about the relationship of consumption of refined sugar with...

  • mortality and aging
  • brain function, memory, and neuroinflammation
  • the development of cancer and expression of oncogenes
  • sex hormones

... and, of special relevance, if you're hoping to cut out a soda habit, the real addictive properties of refined sugar consumption that mirror that of more well-known drugs of abuse.

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Studies mentioned in podcast:
1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6, 7, 8, 9, 10, 11, 12, 13, 10, 11, 14, 15, 16, 17, 18, 19

Mar 16 2017

15mins

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Does Saturated Fat Cause Heart Disease?

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Today we try to answer or at least explore a big question in the world of health: does saturated fat cause heart disease?

This is not an unreasonable concern given the fact that there have been several associative studies that have found a link between saturated fat and heart disease, which is, no doubt, a fat that we find abundantly in the typical American diet since it is richly found in staples like fatty beef, pork, butter, cheese, and other dairy products.

And if you're in the United States and you're not at least a little concerned about heart disease, you may be asleep at the wheel since it's currently our leading cause of death.

Studies mentioned in this episode:

Genetics resources:

Feb 10 2017

24mins

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Does Meat Consumption Cause Cancer?

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Does meat consumption cause cancer? Or, put another way… does avoiding meat help prevent cancer?

If you aren't already savvy to the topic, this may sound more absurd than it should. Here's why: there have been many, many, many correlative studies that have found that higher meat consumption is associated with a significantly higher risk of cancer and cancer mortality.

To try to answer this question we end up going deep into discussing plausible mechanisms that might help explain this phenomenon and, indeed, discussing a little bit of cancer biology as well.

Some of the publications mentioned in this podcast:

Jan 28 2017

15mins

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On Depression and Its Underlying Causes

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The World Health Organization estimates that more than 350 million individuals of all ages have depression and approximately one-third of all patients with depression fail to respond to conventional antidepressant therapies like SSRI’s.

The good news is that today, perhaps more than ever, good science is starting to illuminate some of the underlying biological mechanisms surrounding the development of depression. This new understanding may soon help the clinical world develop new approaches to treatment that may be vastly more effective and for a greater number of people than the traditional approaches.

Publications mentioned:

Jan 25 2017

15mins

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