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(7023)

Rank #9 in Science category

Education
Science

Science Vs

Updated 4 days ago

Rank #9 in Science category

Education
Science
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There are a lot of fads, blogs and strong opinions, but then there’s SCIENCE. Science Vs is the show from Gimlet Media that finds out what’s fact, what’s not, and what’s somewhere in between. We do the hard work of sifting through all the science so you don't have to. This season we tackle football concussions, heartbreak, 5G networks, sleep, free healthcare, police use of force, asteroids and more.

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There are a lot of fads, blogs and strong opinions, but then there’s SCIENCE. Science Vs is the show from Gimlet Media that finds out what’s fact, what’s not, and what’s somewhere in between. We do the hard work of sifting through all the science so you don't have to. This season we tackle football concussions, heartbreak, 5G networks, sleep, free healthcare, police use of force, asteroids and more.

iTunes Ratings

7023 Ratings
Average Ratings
5373
657
247
214
532

Humorous and informational!

By ldsshark626 - Dec 08 2019
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I love how she narrates! It’s informative, informational and humorous!

Love 💖

By viththecat - Dec 05 2019
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Incredible podcast, I learn something every time

iTunes Ratings

7023 Ratings
Average Ratings
5373
657
247
214
532

Humorous and informational!

By ldsshark626 - Dec 08 2019
Read more
I love how she narrates! It’s informative, informational and humorous!

Love 💖

By viththecat - Dec 05 2019
Read more
Incredible podcast, I learn something every time

Listen to:

Cover image of Science Vs

Science Vs

Updated 4 days ago

Read more

There are a lot of fads, blogs and strong opinions, but then there’s SCIENCE. Science Vs is the show from Gimlet Media that finds out what’s fact, what’s not, and what’s somewhere in between. We do the hard work of sifting through all the science so you don't have to. This season we tackle football concussions, heartbreak, 5G networks, sleep, free healthcare, police use of force, asteroids and more.

Vaping: What the Hell is Going On?!

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Vaping is all the rage in the U.S., but young people are turning up at hospitals barely able to breathe. Over a thousand vapers have gotten sick⁠—34 are dead⁠—and no one knows why. We investigated the case of the mysterious vaping disease with help from Geri Sullivan, pulmonologist Dr. Louella Amos, lab director Iniobong Afia, inhalation toxicologist Prof. Ilona Jaspers and researcher Dr. Jamie Hartmann-Boyce. 


Check out the full transcript here: http://bit.ly/33VzzRi


Selected references: 



Credits: 

This episode was produced by our senior producer Kaitlyn Sawrey and producer Michelle Dang, with help from me, Wendy Zukerman, Lexi Krupp, Rose Rimler and Meryl Horn. We’re edited by Caitlin Kenney. Fact checking by Michelle Harris. Mix and sound design by Peter Leonard. Music written by Peter Leonard, Bobby Lord and Emma Munger. A huge thanks to all the people we spoke to for this episode including: Dr Yasmeen Butt, Dr Sean Callahan, Dr Travis Henry, Professor Irfan Rahman, Christopher Harvel, Alex Sandorf, Dr James Pankow, Dr. Konstantinos Farsalinos, Professor Lorraine Martin, Professor Moon-Shong Tang, Dr. Kevin Davidson and Myron Ronay. Extra thanks to Conor Duffy, Zukerman Family and Joseph Lavelle Wilson. 

Oct 25 2019

37mins

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Ketogenic Diet... Is Fat Good For You?

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People who love the ketogenic diet swear it boosts their brainpower, melts their fat, and makes them better athletes. Is it true? To find out, we go keto. And, we talk to some scientists: neuroscientist Dom D’Agostino, medical researcher Eric Verdin, and nutritionist Louise Bourke. Also, Wendy’s mum drops in.

Check out our full transcript here: http://bit.ly/355sUF7

Selected readings:This history of the ketogenic dietA pretty comprehensive reviewEric’s exploration of keto on the memories of miceLouise’s paper on keto and sports

This episode has been produced by senior producer Kaitlyn Sawrey with help from Wendy Zukerman along with Rose Rimler, Shruti Ravindran and Romilla Karnick. We’re edited by Blythe Terrell. Additional help from Eric Menell and Simone Polanen. Fact checking by Michelle Harris. Mix and sound design by Emma Munger. Music written by Bobby Lord. Recording help from Marissa Shieh and Mary Shedden. Extra thanks to Professor Jon Ramsey, Professor Judith Wylie-Roset, Professor Clare Collins, Dr Deirdre K Tobias, Joanna Lauder and Frank Lopez. Thanks to Jack Weinstein. And extra special thanks to Joseph Lavelle Wilson and Ingrid Zukerman.

Apr 26 2018

32mins

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Guns

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We find out how many times a year guns are used in self-defense, how many times they’re used to murder someone, and what impact guns have on the crime rate. In this episode we speak with Prof. David Hemenway, Prof. Helen Christensen, Prof. Gary Kleck and New Jersey gun-range owner Anthony Colandro.

Credits:

This episode has been produced by Caitlin Kenney, Heather Rogers and Kaitlyn Sawrey. Edited by Annie Rose Strasser and Alex Blumberg. Production Assistance by Austin Mitchell. Sound design and music production by Martin Peralta and Matthew Boll, music written by Bobby Lord

Crisis hotlines:US National Suicide Prevention Lifeline 1-800-273-TALK (2755). Online chat available.US Crisis Text Line - text “GO” to 741741Lifeline 13 11 14 (Australia). Online chat available.Canadian Association for Suicide Prevention - see link for phone numbers listed by provinceSamaritans 116 123 (UK and ROI)Selected References:2013 US Mortality Statistics - Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (published 2016)Gary Kleck’s defensive gun use survey Kleck & Gertz, “Armed Resistance to Crime: The Prevalence and Nature of Self-Defense with a Gun”, Journal of Criminal Law and Criminology, 1995Survey of virgin births in the US

Herring et al, “Like a virgin (mother): analysis of data from a longitudinal, US population representative sample survey”, BMJ, 2013David Hemenway’s defensive gun use analysis using National Crime Victimization Survey Hemenway & Solnick, “The epidemiology of self-defense gun use: Evidence from the National Crime Victimization Surveys 2007-2011”, Preventive Medicine, 2015Analysis of suicide rates and methods in Australia Large & Nielssen, “Suicide in Australia: meta-analysis of rates and methods of suicide between 1988 and 2007”, The Medical Journal of Australia, 2010John Lott’s study on right-to-carry laws and crime rates Lott & Mustard, “Crime, Deterrence, and Right-to-Carry Concealed Handguns”, Coase-Sandor Institute for Law & Economics, 1996National Research Academies Panel which found guns don’t increase or decrease crime Wellford, Pepper, and Petrie, editors, “Firearms and Violence: A Critical Review”, The National Academies Press, 2005US Crime statistics, 1990-2009 (US Dept of Justice, FBI)

Aug 04 2016

41mins

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CBD: Weed Wonder Drug?

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CBD mania is in full swing and people are using it for just about anything, but what is this chemical in cannabis? In this week’s episode, we tell you unlikely origin story of CBD and if the science backs up the hype. We speak to Paige Figi, neuroscientist Prof. Kent Hutchison, clinical researcher Dr. Mallory Loflin, and Josh and Joel Stanley.

Check out the transcript right here: http://bit.ly/2OVCfub

Selected references: Mallory’s study showing most CBD products are labeled inaccurately and 1 out of 5 has some THCReview discussing all the possible things CBD is binding to in the brainNational Academy of Sciences report on cannabis and cannabinoids Clinical trial showing CBD reduces seizures for treatment-resistant epilepsy 

Credits:

This episode was produced by Kaitlyn Sawrey with help from Wendy Zukerman, along with Rose Rimler, Meryl Horn and Odelia Rubin. We’re edited by Blythe Terrell, with help from Caitlin Kenny. Fact checking by Michelle Harris. Mix and sound design by Emma Munger. Music by Emma Munger and Bobby Lord. A huge thanks to Professor Elizabeth Thiele, Professor Cinnamon Bidwell, Professor Celia Morgan, Associate Professor Ziva Cooper, and Associate Professor Didier Jutras-Aswad, as well as Sindu Gnanasambandan, Mathilde Urfalino, Frank Lopez, Joseph Lavelle Wilson and the Zukerman Family.

Nov 15 2018

35mins

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Exercise: Fat Buster or Belly Flop?

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Lots of people hit the gym to shed unwanted pounds, but they don’t always see results on the scale. This week, we tackle the power of exercise and why you should bother. We speak with obesity expert Dr. Yoni Freedhoff, psychiatrist Dr. Gary Cooney, neuroscientist Prof. Wendy Suzuki and urologist Dr. Stacey Kenfield.

Check out the full transcript here: http://bit.ly/2kqreUR

UPDATE 10/31/19: An earlier version of this episode said that exercise isn’t a reliable treatment for depression. Some scientists reached out to us about clinical trials we missed. These newer trials found that exercise can help with depression. And we now think the research in this space is stronger than we made it sound. We’ve updated the episode.

Selected references: The study which looked at the effect of exercising 5 days a week for a year on weight: http://bit.ly/2mitPR8Gary's Cochrane review on the benefits of exercise for depression: http://bit.ly/2kqrGCxThe study which found that exercise is linked to a lower risk of getting dementia: http://bit.ly/2mj9qeL Stacey's study on exercise and prostate cancer: http://bit.ly/2kuPwgu

Credits: This episode was produced by Wendy Zukerman, with help from Meryl Horn, Rose Rimler and Lexi Krupp. Our senior producer is Kaitlyn Sawrey. We’re edited by Caitlin Kenney and Blythe Terrell. Fact checking by Diane Kelly. Mix and sound design by Peter Leonard. Music by Peter Leonard, Emma Munger and Bobby Lord. Recording assistance from Joel Cox, Andrea Rangecroft, Natalie Jones, and Mark Totti. A huge thanks to all the scientists we got in touch with for this episode, including Professor Virginia Berridge, Professor James Blumenthal, Professor Kirk Erickson, Dr. Tara Walker, Dr. Shannon Halloway, Professor Steven Petruzzello, Dr. Kristine Beaulieu, Dr. Aric Sudicky and many others! A special thanks to the Emmanuel Dzotsi, Zukerman family, and Joseph Lavelle Wilson.

Sep 19 2019

35mins

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Organic Food

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People are going bonkers for organic, but what are you really getting when you buy them? Better taste? Fewer toxic chemicals? A cleaner environment? Farmers Mark, Andy, and Brian Reeves, nutritional epidemiologist Dr. Kathryn Bradbury, Ass. Prof. Cynthia Curl, and Prof. Navin Ramankutty help us sort it all out.

Credits:

This episode has been produced by Heather Rogers, Lynn Levy, Caitlin Kenney, Austin Mitchell, and Kaitlyn Sawrey. Editing by Annie-Rose Strasser and Alex Blumberg. Fact checking by Michelle Harris. Production Assistance by Diane Wu and Shruti Ravindran. Special thanks to Stevie Lane and Joseph Lavelle Wilson. Sound design and music production by Matthew Boll, mixing by Martin Peralta, Austin Thompson and Haley Shaw. Music written by Bobby Lord.

Selected Resources:Organic vs conventional tomato taste test

Johansson et al, “Preference for tomatoes, affected by sensory attributes and information about growth conditions,” Food Quality and Preference, 1999Nutritional analysis of organic vs organic food

Smith-Spangler et al, “Are Organic Foods Safer or Healthier Than Conventional Alternatives?: A Systematic Review,” Annals of Internal Medicine, 2012.2012 USDA report on pesticide residues in organic produceLargest (620,000 women) long-term (9 year) study of how eating organic food affects human health -- focusing on cancer

Bradbury et al, “Organic food consumption and the incidence of cancer in a large prospective study of women in the United Kingdom”, British Journal of Cancer, 2014Biodiversity is higher on organic farms

“Tuck et al, “Land-use intensity and the effects of organic farming on biodiversity: a hierarchical meta-analysis,” The Journal of Applied Ecology, 2014.Nitrogen leaching is higher per unit product on organic farms

Tuomisto et al, “Does organic farming reduce environmental impacts? – A meta-analysis of European research”Crop yield on organic farms is on average 75% that of conventional farms

Seufert et al, “Comparing the yields of organic and conventional agriculture,” Nature 2012If we want to feed the world without cutting down more forests, we’re going to need more vegetarians

Erb et al, “Exploring the biophysical option space for feeding the world without deforestation,” Nature Communications, 2016On combining organic and conventional farming techniques

Letourneau et al, “Crop protection in organic agriculture,” Chapter 4 of Organic agriculture: a global perspective, 2006.

Aug 26 2016

36mins

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Vegans: Are They Right?

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Do vegans have a right to be so smug? This week we find out whether it really is better for the environment, and our bodies, to go vegan. We speak to environmental researcher Joseph Poore, historian Prof. Connie Hilliard, anthropologist Prof. Katharine Milton, and nutrition researcher Prof. Roman Pawlak.

Check out the transcript right here: http://bit.ly/2OeFye7

Selected references: Joseph’s study comparing 40,000 different farmsConnie’s paper comparing countries that consume more or less dairyA big review of calcium intake and fracture riskThis report on the influence of the dairy industryKatie’s paper on the evolution of meat-eatingRoman’s work rounding up studies on a vitamin deficiency

Credits: This episode was produced by Rose Rimler with help from Wendy Zukerman, along with Meryl Horn and Odelia Rubin. Our senior producer is Kaitlyn Sawrey. We’re edited by Blythe Terrell and Caitlin Kenney. Fact checking by Michelle Harris. Mix and sound design by Emma Munger. Music by Emma Munger and Bobby Lord. Recording assistance from Robbie MacInnes, Paul Reece, Spencer Silva, and Hady Mawajdeh. For this episode we also spoke to Connie Weaver, Nathan H. Lents, Mark Bolland, Ambrish Mithal, Marco Springmann, Mary Beth Hall, Tara Garnett, Tom Sanders, Frederick Leroy, and others. Thank you so much for your help. And a big thanks to the Zukerman family and Joseph Lavelle Wilson. 

Sep 27 2018

30mins

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PANDEMIC!!!

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If a pandemic ripped across the world, how bad would it really get? You’ve heard the horror stories, but you’ve never heard one like this. Dr. Anthony Fauci, who advises the President on emerging infectious diseases, helps us out. Check out the full transcript here: http://bit.ly/2M4Tlnt

Selected references: 


Credits: This episode was produced by our senior producer Kaitlyn Sawrey, with help from Wendy Zukerman, Michelle Dang, Lexi Krupp, Rose Rimler and Meryl Horn. Special thanks to Frank Lopez. We’re edited by Caitlin Kenney and Blythe Terrell. Extra writing help from Kevin Christopher Snipes. Fact checking by Diane Kelly. Mix and sound design by Peter Leonard. Music written by Peter Leonard, Bobby Lord and Marcus Thorne Bagala. Comments and thoughts from Dr. Eric Toner, Dr. Demetre Daskalakis, Beth Maldin Morgenthau, Dr. Melvin Sanicas, Professor Michael Osterholm, Dr. Patrick Saunders Hastings, Rosemary Gibson, Thomas Bollyky, Dr. Ashleigh Tuite, Professor Stephen Morse, Dr. Lalitha Sundaram, Professor David N. Fisman, Lynette Brammer, Dr. Mohamed Naguib, Dr. Yeulong Shu, Dr. Dan Jernigan, Dr Kirsty Short, and special thanks to Bess Davenport at CDC. Death toll modeling came from the Institute for Disease Modeling, with valuable guidance from Dr. Mandy Izzo and Dr. Kurt Frey. 

Thanks to all our actors:

Annabelle Fox as Mindy Tuckerman

Casey Wortmann as Dr Rosie Morales

William Dufris as Dr Uzdienski

Dani Cervone as Dr Emily Ragus 

Jordan Cobb as the Triage Nurse

Alice Kors as the distressed Mum

Robin Miles as the Nurse

Jonathan Woodward as Voiceover, 911 Operator, and Police Officer

Ian Lowe as Emergency Services Officer

Matt Lieber as the Politician

Newscasters include: Kaitlyn Sawrey, Renita Jablonski and Gabriel Lozada

Plane landing voice over: Peter Leonard

Directed by William Dufris with help from Wendy Zukerman, Kaitlyn Sawrey and Fred Grenhalgh. Recording by Fred Greenhalgh and Peter Leonard. Also thank you to all the Gimlet people who performed various drafts including Chad Chenail, Gabe Lozada, Jasmine Romero and MR Daniel. And a huge thank you to everyone who listened and gave comments - especially the Zukerman Family and Joseph Lavelle Wilson. Finally, a huge thank you to Jorge Just, Stevie Lane, Phoebe Flanigan, Chris Giliberti, Justin McGolrick and Katie Pastore. 

Oct 11 2019

39mins

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Serial Killers: Science of the Lambs

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What makes a serial killer? What drives them to kill again and again? To find out the truth about this ghastly lot, we talked to forensic psychologist Prof. Eric Hickey, criminologist Ass. Prof. Wayne Petherick, and psychiatrist Prof. Gwen Adshead.

Check out the full transcript here: http://bit.ly/34aoJXG

Note: in this episode we discuss homicide, and sexual violence. Please take care when listening to the show, and here are some resources:

National Mental Health Helpline: 1-800-662-HELP (4357).

National Hotline for Crime Victims 1-855-4-VICTIM (1-855-484-2846)

National Sexual Assault Hotline: 1-800-656-HOPE (4673)

Selected readings:Dr. Mike Aamodt’s database of serial killers at Radford UniversityThis study looked at more than 1000 juvenile offenders to find out what was different about those who became killers All sorts of statistics for some of the common behaviors of serial killersThis paper digs into some of the more unusual “ritualistic” behavior of serial killers 

Credits: 

This Episode has been produced by Shruti Ravindran, Meryl Horn, Rose Rimler and Wendy Zukerman. Our senior producer is Kaitlyn Sawrey. We’re edited by Blythe Terrell. Additional editing help from Alex Blumberg. Fact Checking by Michelle Harris. Music by Bobby Lord and Emma Munger. Sound Design and mix by Emma Munger. A big thanks to all of the other academics who helped us out, including Dr. Mike Aamodt, Dr. Ann Burgess, Dr. Scott Lilienfeld, Dr. Devon Polaschek, Dr. Kori Ryan, Dr. Kim Rossmo, Dr. David Finkelhor, Dr. David Keatley, Dr. Jennifer Lansford, Dr. Karen Franklin, Dr. Michael Maltz, Dr. Gabrielle Salfati, Dr. Claire Ferguson, Dr. Sandra Taylor, and Katherine Ramsland. Extra thanks to Sarah McVeigh, Christopher Suter, Frank Lopez, Rose Reid, the Zukerman Family, and Joseph Lavelle Wilson, and everyone at Gimlet who listened and gave thoughts.

Jun 28 2018

32mins

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Fasting Diets: What's the Skinny?

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Fasting diets are all the rage right now and health-fluencers claim it can help you lose weight, live longer and even fight cancer. So what does the science say? We speak to nutrition researchers Dr Krista Varady and Dr Courtney Peterson, as well as cancer researcher Professor Valter Longo.

Check out the full transcript here: http://bit.ly/35FYJoP

Selected references: Krista’s study comparing alternate day fasting with regular dieting, which found they had similar weight loss after one year.Courtney’s study which measured metabolic changes after time-restricted feeding without weight loss.Valter’s paper summarizing the studies in fasting and cancer. 

Credits:This episode was produced by our senior producer Kaitlyn Sawrey and Wendy Zukerman with help from Michelle Dang, Rose Rimler, and Meryl Horn. We’re edited by Blythe Terrell, with extra editing help from Caitlin Kenney and Annie-Rose Strasser. Fact checking by Eva Dasher and Michelle Dang. Mix and sound design by Peter Leonard. Music by Peter Leonard, Emma Munger and Bobby Lord. A huge thanks to all the researchers we got in touch with for this episode including Dr Peter Chisnell, Dr Mikkel Holm Vendelbo, Dr Jiahong Lu, Dr Dorothy Sears, Prof. Mark Mattson, Dr James D Dvorak, Dr Calloway Scott, Professor Richard Billows, Professor Nancy Worman, Dr Barbara Kowalzig and the University of Alabama, Birmingham. Also thanks to the Kimmie Regler, Helen Zaltman Zukerman Family, Frank Lopez and Joseph Lavelle Wilson. 

Mar 29 2019

29mins

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Alcohol: A Pour Decision?

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For decades we’ve been told that having a glass or two of wine is good for you. But recently there’ve been reports that even a little bit of booze is bad for you. So what is going on? Is just a bit of alcohol dangerous? To find out we talk to epidemiologist and nutritionist Prof. Eric Rimm, psychologist Prof. Tim Stockwell, and cancer researcher Dr. Susan Gapstur.

Check out the full transcript here: http://bit.ly/31p8pk5

Selected references: Eric’s study of drinking and heart attacks in over 40,000 men Tim and Kaye’s meta-analysis critiquing the heart benefit hypothesisMeta-analysis showing the increased risk of cancer and other diseases from drinking different amounts

Credits: 

This episode was produced by Meryl Horn with help from Wendy Zukerman as well as Rose Rimler and Michelle Dang. Our senior producer is Kaitlyn Sawrey. We’re edited by Blythe Terrell. Editing help from Caitlin Kenney. Fact checking by Michelle Harris and Michelle Dang. Mix and sound design by Peter Leonard. Music by Peter Leonard, Emma Munger and Bobby Lord. Thanks especially to Michelle Dang for her all her research help on this episode. A huge thanks to all the researchers we got in touch with for this episode including Dr. Arthur Klatsky, Dr. William Kerr, Dr. Tim Niami, Professor William Ghali, Dr. Wendy Chen, Max Griswold and many others. Recording help from Andrew Stelzer, Susanna Capelouto, Katie Sage, and Joseph Fridman. Also thanks to Lynn Levy, the Zukerman Family and Joseph Lavelle Wilson. 

Mar 15 2019

33mins

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Meditation

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Silicon Valley CEOs, Tibetan monks, and crunchy hippies alike describe meditation as blissful and life-changing, but what does the science say? Can it reduce stress, increase your attention, and improve mental health -- or is all this focus on breathing just a bunch of hot air?  Sit back, get comfortable, and focus your mind as we talk to Tim Ferriss, Professor Gaelle Desbordes, Dr. Clifford Saron, and Dr. Britta Hölzel. Please note: we have updated this episode. We removed a reference to Peter Thiel, the founder of Paypal. He was a guest on Tim Ferriss' show, but didn't discuss whether he meditates. 

Our SponsorsEveryday Bravery - Listen to Everyday Bravery, a podcast from Prudential, by going to everydaybravery.comWordpress - go to wordpress.com/science to get 15% off a new website

Credits:

This episode has been produced by Shruti Ravindran, Ben Kuebrich, Heather Rogers and Wendy Zukerman. Kaitlyn Sawrey is our senior producer. We’re edited by Annie Rose Strasser. Fact checking by Ben Kuebrich. Music production and original music written by Bobby Lord. Extra thanks to Dr Jonathan Schooler, Dr Florian Kurth Aldis Wieble and Dr. Madhav Goyal.

Selected References:CDC Report: Trends in the Use of Complementary Health Approaches Among Adults: United States, 2002–2012Review of Neuroimaging Studies on Meditators Meditation Programs for Psychological Stress and Well-being A Systematic Review and Meta-analysis - JAMA review of Clinical Trials with Active ControlsIntensive meditation training, immune cell telomerase activity, and psychological mediators - Dr. Cliff Saron’s study on telomerase activity after a meditation retreat

May 25 2017

35mins

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The G-spot

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Join us on a hunt for the elusive G-spot. Our guides: Prof. Beverly Whipple, who introduced America to the G-spot in the 1980s, and Prof. Helen O’Connell, a urologist and expert on female sexual anatomy.

CreditsThis episode has been produced by Heather Rogers, Caitlin Kenney, Austin Mitchell, and Kaitlyn Sawrey. Edited by Annie-Rose Strasser and Alex Blumberg. Fact Checking by Michelle Harris.Production Assistance by Dr Diane Wu & Shruti Ravindran. Extra thanks to Lola Pellegrino, Andres Montoya Castillo, Rose Reid, Radio National’s Science Show -- they make a podcast. It’s great.

Sound design and music production by Matthew Boll, mixed by Martin Peralta. Music written by Bobby Lord.And be sure to check out our producer Austin Mitchell’s podcast Profiles:NYC.

Selected References1981 study identifying G-spot in 47 women . . . but not confirming that it leads to orgasm Perry and Whipple, “Pelvic Muscle Strength of Female Ejaculators: Evidence in Support of a New Theory of Orgasm,” The Journal of Sex Research, 1981. Note: not freely available.  Report of the first modern dissection of the clitoris O’Connell et al, “Anatomical relationship between urethra and clitoris,” Journal of Urology, 1998.Everything besides the clitoris is just a shade of gray in the MRI O’Connell et al, “Clitoral anatomy in nulliparous, healthy, premenopausal volunteers using unenhanced magnetic resonance imaging,” Journal of Urology, 2005. Comprehensive account of clitoris anatomy O’Connell et al, “Anatomy of the clitoris,” Journal of Urology, 2005.Review of research on the G-Spot and cliteralurethrovaginal complex Jannini et al, “Beyond the G-Spot: clitourethrovaginal complex anatomy in female orgasm,” Nature Reviews Urology, 2014. Note: not freely available. 

Sep 02 2016

41mins

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Antidepressants

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There’s an intriguing body of research that suggests the power of antidepressants doesn’t come from chemicals in the drugs, but from the power of placebo. Not everyone agrees, though. We speak to researchers and medical professionals on either side of the debate, and some wedged in-between -- Prof. Peter Kramer, psychiatrist and author of Ordinarily Well: the Case for Antidepressants; Prof. Irving Kirsch, psychologist and author of The Emperor’s New Drugs: Exploding the Antidepressant Myth; psychiatrist and radiologist Prof. Helen Mayberg; and psychiatrist Prof. Gregory Simon.

Crisis Hotlines:US National Suicide Prevention Lifeline 1-800-273-TALK (2755)US Crisis Text Line Text “GO” to 741741Australian Lifeline 13 11 14Canadian Association for Suicide PreventionOur SponsorsCasper - Get $50 towards any mattress by visiting casper.com/sciencevs and use the promo code SCIENCEVSThird Love - Go to thirdlove.com/sciencevs to start your free trialWealthsimple – Investing made easy. Get your first $10,000 managed for free.Credits

This episode has been produced by Heather Rogers, Shruti Ravindran, and Diane Wu. Our senior producer is Kaitlyn Sawrey. Edited by Annie-Rose Strasser and Caitlin Kenney. Fact checking by Michelle Harris. Sound design and music production by Matthew Boll, mixed by Martin Peralta and Matthew Boll. Music written by Bobby Lord and Martin Peralta.

Selected References2008 study suggesting that antidepressants are not much better than placebo for people suffering in severe depression.2016 study suggesting that antidepressants were way better than placebo in treating people suffering from severe depression. 2016 study on how drug companies under-report side effects in clinical trials. 2003 round-up of the most common side-effects of antidepressants. 2013 study which uses brain imaging to try to pinpoint whether patients would respond better to medication or psychotherapy. 

Oct 28 2016

41mins

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UFOs: What the Government Covered Up

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Could aliens actually exist? Is there any chance they’ve visited Earth already? What really happened at Roswell? The truth... is right here. We talked to astronomers Dr. Jill Tarter, Dr. Seth Shostak, investigative journalist David Clarke, and physicist Prof. Jim Al Khalili.

Check out the full transcript here: http://bit.ly/2PqOHRj

Selected readings: Seth’s account of that day in 1997The “Condon report”-- a 1968 effort to go through and identify all UFO sightingsThe Roswell ReportThis paper estimating how many planets are in the “Goldilocks” zoneA good read on wormholes and their history; a tough read on how we might use them to teleport

Credits: This episode has been produced by our senior producer Kaitlyn Sawrey, as well as Wendy Zukerman and Rose Rimler, with help from Shruti Ravindran and Meryl Horn. Fact checking by Michelle Harris and Meryl Horn. Music by Bobby Lord and Emma Munger. Editing by Blythe Terrell. Additional editing help from Caitlin Kenney. We performed this live for GimletFest - and we were joined onstage by our Aussie mate and mathematician Adam Spencer who has his own podcast you should check out ‘The Big Questions’, and astronomer Dr Emily Rice, who helps run Astronomy on Tap which brings together astronomers and beer. Check it out to see whether it runs in your city. Also thanks to Dr. Ravi Kumar Kopparapu, Dr. Craig O'Neill, Dr. Jessie Christiansen, Dr. Cameron Hummels, Dr. Phil Hopkins, Dr Avi Loeb, and the many other researchers who helped us on this. 

Jun 21 2018

38mins

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Essential Oils: Science or Snake Oil?

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Essential Oils - and their claims - are huge right now. But is it all hype, or is there something special about these little brown bottles? To get to the bottom of it, we dig through the studies and speak to cognitive neuroscientist Dr. Rachel Herz and psychologist Prof. Mark Moss.

Check out the full transcript here: http://bit.ly/2PyEsKy

Selected references: Rachel Herz’s books: Why You Eat What You Eat & The Scent of DesireA review of the benefits of peppermint tea and oil A critical review of the clinical trials Mark’s two studies showing that rosemary can enhance memoryThe experiment where lavender had different effects depending on what the people expected it to do 

Credits: This episode was produced by Meryl Horn, with help from Wendy Zukerman, Rose Rimler and Odelia Rubin. Our senior producer is Kaitlyn Sawrey. We’re edited by Blythe Terrell and Caitlin Kenney. Fact checking by Michelle Harris and Rose Rimler. Mix and sound design by Emma Munger. Music by Emma Munger and Bobby Lord. A huge thanks to all the researchers we got in touch with for this episode - including Ryan Dalton, Elaine Elisabetsky, Belinda Hornby, Diane McKay, and Thomas Cleland. Also thanks to the Zukerman Family and Joseph Lavelle Wilson.

Sep 20 2018

29mins

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Vitamins & Supplements - Are They Worth It?

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Americans spend billions of dollars on vitamins and supplements, but are they worth it? We look at the science behind some of the most popular supplements with nutritional epidemiologist Prof. Katherine Tucker, neuroscientist Dr. Simon Dyall, and medical researcher Dr. Mark Bolland.

Our Sponsors: G Suite | WP Engine

Credits: This episode has been produced by Wendy Zukerman, Heather Rogers, and Shruti Ravindran. Production assistance from Rose Rimler. Our senior producer is Kaitlyn Sawrey. Edited by Blythe Terrell with help from Alex Blumberg. Fact checking by Michelle Harris. Sound design by Martin Peralta and Bobby Lord. Music written by Bobby Lord. An extra thanks to the Zukerman Family, Joseph Lavelle Wilson, Chris Giliberti, Jasmine Romero, Matthew Nelson, Stevie Lane, Dr Harri Hemilä, Stephanie from the New York State Library and Dr Rajaprabhakaran Rajarethinam.

Selected Reading:The history of fortified foodsThe Institute of Medicine Report on calcium and Vitamin DSurvey on vitamin shopping habits in the USSimon’s paper on Omega 3 and spinal cord injuries in ratsMark’s work on calciumThis whopper of a study on multivitamins

Check out the full transcript here: http://bit.ly/2rlrpnZ

Oct 19 2017

38mins

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DNA Kits: Can You Trust Them?

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Millions of people are sending off their DNA to companies like Ancestry.com and 23andme to find out where they come from, and what diseases they might get. But how much can you trust these DNA kits? To find out, we speak to anthropologist Prof. Jonathan Marks and geneticist Dr Adam Rutherford.

Check out the full transcript here: http://bit.ly/2OSICOD

Selected references: This academic paper on genetic ancestry testingAncestry.com’s white paper The genetics of Alzheimer DiseaseA perspective piece on genetic privacy

Credits: This episode was produced by Rose Rimler, with senior producer Kaitlyn Sawrey… with help from Wendy Zukerman, Meryl Horn and Michelle Dang. We’re edited by Blythe Terrell. Fact checking by Michelle Harris and Michelle Dang. Mix and sound design by Peter Leonard. Music by Peter Leonard, Frank Lopez, Emma Munger and Bobby Lord. Recording assistance from Cole del Charco, Madeline Taylor, Carmen Baskauf, Ian Cross and [Mareek] Marijke Peters. A huge thanks to everyone who spat in a tube for us, especially Toni Magyar and Alex Blumberg, and to all the researchers we got in touch with for this episode, including Dr. Wendy Roth, Dr Deborah Bolnick, Dr Celeste Karch, Professor Nancy Wexler, Dr. Robert Green, Dr Catharine Wang, and others. Thanks also to the teams at Ancestry.com, 23andMe, and MyHeritage. Thanks to the Zukerman Family and Joseph Lavelle Wilson. 

Apr 12 2019

38mins

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Gun Control (Pt 2)

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In last week’s episode, we learned that around 30,000 Americans die each year from guns. This week, we examine possible solutions. Do better background checks, buybacks, and gun registration lead to fewer shooting deaths? What happened in Australia after they got rid of all the guns? To find out, we talk to gun shop owner Bob Kostaras, former ATF special agent Mark Jones, Prof. Philip Alpers, and Prof. Peter Squires.

Credits:

This episode has been produced by Heather Rogers, Caitlin Kenney, Austin Mitchell, and Kaitlyn Sawrey. Editing by Annie Rose Strasser and Alex Blumberg. Production Assistance by Diane Wu, and Shruti Ravindran. Fact checking by Michelle Harris. Sound design and music production by Matthew Boll, mixing by Martin Peralta and Haley Shaw. Music written by Bobby Lord.

Crisis Hotlines:US National Suicide Prevention Lifeline 1-800-273-TALK (2755)US Crisis Text Line Text “GO” to 741741Australia: Lifeline 13 11 14Canadian Association for Suicide PreventionUK & Ireland: Samaritans 116 123 Selected References:Background Checks for Firearms Transfers, US Bureau of Justice, 2009 Including details on federal gun purchase regulationsIssues with the current US background check system, plus recommendations for improvement Wintemute, “Background checks for firearm transfers: Assessment and recommendations.” Violence Prevention Research Program, UC Davis. 2013. States with more comprehensive background checks, including better reporting, have lower rates of gun homicide Ruddel and Mays, “State background checks and firearms homicides,” Journal of Criminal Justice, 2005. Most prisoners incarcerated for a gun-related offense did not buy their gun from a licensed dealer Harlow, C. “Firearm use by offenders”, Bureau of Justice Statistics Special Report, 2001. How much of violent crime in Sweden can be attributed to people with severe mental illness? About 5% Fazel and Grann. “The Population Impact of Severe Mental Illness on Violent Crime.” Am J Psychiatry, 2006A study of how gun laws in Australia changed gun homicide rates Chapman et al, “Association Between Gun Law Reforms and Intentional Firearm Deaths in Australia, 1979-2013”, Journal of the American Medical Association, 2016. 

Aug 12 2016

42mins

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Ancient Aliens: Who Really Built the Pyramids?

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Is it possible that the pyramids were built with a helping hand... from aliens? If not, how on Earth did the Egyptians built them without modern technology? To get to the bottom of this, we speak to author Erich von Däniken, paleoanthropologist Dr. Shelby Putt, Egyptologist Dr. Mark Lehner, and archaeologist Prof. David S. Anderson.

Check out the transcript here: http://bit.ly/2P6tvl9

Selected references: This paper about the evolution of intelligence. Mark’s article about the canal system...with diagrams! Mark’s book about pyramid building-- along with this book and this one, too. David’s book about pseudoarchaeology.

Credits: This episode was produced by Rose Rimler with help from Wendy Zukerman, along with Meryl Horn and Odelia Rubin. Our senior producer is Kaitlyn Sawrey. We’re edited by Blythe Terrell. Fact checking by Michelle Harris. Mix and sound design by Emma Munger. Music by Emma Munger and Bobby Lord. A huge thanks to the team at the Museum of Fine Arts in Boston, as well as Professor Pierre Tallet, Roland Enmarch, Jens Notroff, Professor Erin L. Thompson and everyone else who spoke to us for this episode...thanks for your help. A special thanks to Sarah Hendricks, Jake Finnicum, Frank Lopez, Joseph Lavelle Wilson and the Zukerman Family.

Nov 29 2018

29mins

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Healthcare: How Do We Fix It?

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American healthcare has big problems. Some say the solution is Medicare For All: one government plan for everybody. But others say government healthcare would be worse than what we already have. Who’s right? And how did things get this bad? We talk to health policy researchers Prof. Harold Pollack and Robin Osborn. 


Check out the full transcript here: https://bit.ly/38ye0cY


Selected references: 


Credits:

This episode was produced by Rose Rimler with help from Lexi Krupp along with Wendy Zukerman, Michelle Dang, and Meryl Horn. We’re edited by Caitlin Kenney. Fact checking by Michelle Harris. Mix and sound design by Peter Leonard. Music written by Peter Leonard, Emma Munger, Bobby Lord, and Marcus Bagala. Recording assistance from Sofi LaLonde, David DesRoches, Dennis Maler, and James Delahoussaye. A huge thanks to all of the people with diabetes we spoke with-- thanks so much! Also big thanks to Dr. Irene Papanicolas, Prof. Steven Woolf, Dr. Kasia Lipska, Elizabeth Pfiester, Professor Kevin Schulman, Dr. Eric Schneider, Dr. Chris Pope, Cynthia Cox, Lois Rogers, and everyone else we spoke to for this episode. And special thanks to the Zukerman family and Joseph Lavelle Wilson.

Dec 13 2019

38mins

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Ants: Tales from the Underground

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On today’s show, three f-ant-astic stories of survival, friendship and courage about some of the most underrated creatures in the animal queendom. Produced with our friends at Every Little Thing, another Gimlet podcast. We spoke with behavioral ecologist Dr. István Maák, biologist Dr. Erik Frank, entomologist Dr. Christina Kwapich, and biologist Prof Derrick Brazill. 


Check out the full transcript here: http://bit.ly/38cDgoU


Selected references: 


Credits:

Science Vs is produced by Wendy Zukerman along with Meryl Horn, Rose Rimler, Michelle Dang, and Lexi Krupp. Every Little Thing’s piece was produced by Gabby Bulgarelli, Emily Forman, Phoebe Flanigan, Annette Heist and Flora Lichtman. This episode was edited by Caitlin Kenney and Jorge Just. Fact checking by Diane Kelly and Nicole Pasulka. Mix and sound design by Peter Leonard and Dara Hirsch. Music written by Dara Hirsch, Dan Brunelle, Peter Leonard, Emma Munger, Bobby Lord and erm, Wendy. A big thanks to Dr. Nathalie Stroeymeyt, Dr. Gema Trigos-Peral, Dr. Jack Neff, and recording help from Wojciech Oleksiak And special thanks to the Zukerman family and Joseph Lavelle Wilson.

Dec 05 2019

33mins

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Police Shootings: The Data and the Damage Done

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It’s been five years since the high profile shootings of several unarmed black teenagers and men launched the Black Lives Matter movement. Since then, police departments have been doing all kinds of things to respond to the deaths and protests. But do any of them work? To find out we speak with social psychologist Prof. Jennifer Eberhardt, psychologist Prof. Phillip Atiba Goff, public policy expert Dr. David Yokum, criminologists Dr. Lois James, and Dr. Stephen James. 


Check out the full transcript transcript here: http://bit.ly/2D23jAR


Selected references: 


Credits:

This episode was produced by Meryl Horn with help from Wendy Zukerman, along with Rose Rimler, Michelle Dang, Lexi Krupp, and Kaitlyn Sawrey. We’re edited by Caitlin Kenney and Blythe Terrell. Fact checking by Diane Kelly. Mix and sound design by Peter Leonard with help from Cedric Wilson. Music written by Peter Leonard, Benny Reid, Emma Munger, and Bobby Lord. A big thanks to Professor Lawrence Sherman, Dr. Joe Cesario, Dr. Sam Walker, Chuck Wexler, Dr. Peter Moskos, Dennis Flores, Hawk Newsome, Professor William Terrill, Dr. Arne Nieuwenhuys, Professor Franklin Zimring, Dr. Joan Vickers, and Dr. Justin Nix. Thanks to all police officers we spoke to- we really appreciate your help. And special thanks to Amber Davis, Chuma Ossé, Daniel Domke, Christina Djossa, the Zukerman family and Joseph Lavelle Wilson.

Nov 22 2019

35mins

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When a Hospital becomes The Butcher Shop

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A group of teenagers and college kids were fed up with the lousy healthcare in their neighborhood. So they decided to fight the system head on—a fight that still resonates today. Sid Davidoff, Mickey Melendez, and Cleo Silvers share their story. 

Check out the full transcript here: http://bit.ly/33QhYKX

Selected references: 

Nov 15 2019

39mins

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Sleep: All Aboard the Snooze Cruise!

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Not sleeping enough turning you into a monster? Cutting-edge science helps us understand why. And we sort through the fads to find out, what really works to get more ZZZs. We speak with lab coordinator Pam De Young, sleep researcher Dr. Brady Riedner, and circadian scientist Prof. Russell Foster. 


Check out the full transcript here: http://bit.ly/2Ns26Zt


Selected references: 


Credits:

This episode was produced by Rose Rimler and Lexi Krupp with help from Wendy Zukerman, along with Michelle Dang, Meryl Horn and Kaitlyn Sawrey. We’re edited by Caitlin Kenney. Fact checking by Diane Kelly. Mix and sound design by Peter Leonard. Music written by Peter Leonard, Emma Munger, Bobby Lord, and Bach. Recording assistance from Dave Drexler, Tim Peterson, Zoe Sullivan, and Martin Wiggins. Sonification of EEG data came from Dr. Gerold Baier and Dr. Thomas Hermann. A big thanks to Dr. Amandine Valomon, Prof. James Krueger, Dr. Ari Shechter, Dr. Jade Wu, Dr. Bei Bei, Dr. Connor Sheehan, Dr. Jennifer Ailshire, Dr. Agostinho Rosa, and everyone else we spoke to for this episode, especially our frustrated sleepers. Thanks for calling in! And special thanks to Chuma Ossé, the Zukerman family and Joseph Lavelle Wilson.

Nov 08 2019

36mins

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5G: Welcome to the Revolution?

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How should we feel about 5G? Is it a breakthrough technology that will revolutionize our world, or in a bid to get new gadgets, are we risking our health? To find out, we spoke with electrical engineer Prof. Jeff Andrews, biologist Prof. Henrik Mouritsen, radiology safety expert Prof. Chris Collins, and psychologist Prof. Rodney Croft. 

Check out the full transcript here: http://bit.ly/2qd2MIR

Selected references: 


Credits: This episode was produced by Meryl Horn with help from Wendy Zukerman, Lexi Krupp, Michelle Dang and Rose Rimler. We’re edited by Caitlin Kenney. Fact checking by Michelle Harris, Lexi Krupp, and Michelle Dang. Mix and sound design by Peter Leonard and Bobby Lord. Music written by Peter Leonard, Bobby Lord and Emma Munger. Recording assistance from Olivia Aldridge, Beth McMullen, and Mirjam Steger. A huge thanks to all the people we spoke to for this episode including: Dr. Sarah Loughran, Dr. Stefano Cucurachi, Professor Muriel Médard, Dr. Harish Krishnaswamy, Dr. Christopher Labos, Dr. Jordan Gerth, Dr. Arno Thielens, Prof. David Carpenter, Dr. Jerrold Bushberg, Dr. Patrick Mineault, Norman Carreck and ARPANSA. Extra thanks to Kaitlyn Sawrey, Shahzad Ahsan, Rachel Ward, the Zukerman Family and Joseph Lavelle Wilson. 

Oct 31 2019

39mins

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Vaping: What the Hell is Going On?!

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Vaping is all the rage in the U.S., but young people are turning up at hospitals barely able to breathe. Over a thousand vapers have gotten sick⁠—34 are dead⁠—and no one knows why. We investigated the case of the mysterious vaping disease with help from Geri Sullivan, pulmonologist Dr. Louella Amos, lab director Iniobong Afia, inhalation toxicologist Prof. Ilona Jaspers and researcher Dr. Jamie Hartmann-Boyce. 


Check out the full transcript here: http://bit.ly/33VzzRi


Selected references: 



Credits: 

This episode was produced by our senior producer Kaitlyn Sawrey and producer Michelle Dang, with help from me, Wendy Zukerman, Lexi Krupp, Rose Rimler and Meryl Horn. We’re edited by Caitlin Kenney. Fact checking by Michelle Harris. Mix and sound design by Peter Leonard. Music written by Peter Leonard, Bobby Lord and Emma Munger. A huge thanks to all the people we spoke to for this episode including: Dr Yasmeen Butt, Dr Sean Callahan, Dr Travis Henry, Professor Irfan Rahman, Christopher Harvel, Alex Sandorf, Dr James Pankow, Dr. Konstantinos Farsalinos, Professor Lorraine Martin, Professor Moon-Shong Tang, Dr. Kevin Davidson and Myron Ronay. Extra thanks to Conor Duffy, Zukerman Family and Joseph Lavelle Wilson. 

Oct 25 2019

37mins

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PANDEMIC!!!

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If a pandemic ripped across the world, how bad would it really get? You’ve heard the horror stories, but you’ve never heard one like this. Dr. Anthony Fauci, who advises the President on emerging infectious diseases, helps us out. Check out the full transcript here: http://bit.ly/2M4Tlnt

Selected references: 


Credits: This episode was produced by our senior producer Kaitlyn Sawrey, with help from Wendy Zukerman, Michelle Dang, Lexi Krupp, Rose Rimler and Meryl Horn. Special thanks to Frank Lopez. We’re edited by Caitlin Kenney and Blythe Terrell. Extra writing help from Kevin Christopher Snipes. Fact checking by Diane Kelly. Mix and sound design by Peter Leonard. Music written by Peter Leonard, Bobby Lord and Marcus Thorne Bagala. Comments and thoughts from Dr. Eric Toner, Dr. Demetre Daskalakis, Beth Maldin Morgenthau, Dr. Melvin Sanicas, Professor Michael Osterholm, Dr. Patrick Saunders Hastings, Rosemary Gibson, Thomas Bollyky, Dr. Ashleigh Tuite, Professor Stephen Morse, Dr. Lalitha Sundaram, Professor David N. Fisman, Lynette Brammer, Dr. Mohamed Naguib, Dr. Yeulong Shu, Dr. Dan Jernigan, Dr Kirsty Short, and special thanks to Bess Davenport at CDC. Death toll modeling came from the Institute for Disease Modeling, with valuable guidance from Dr. Mandy Izzo and Dr. Kurt Frey. 

Thanks to all our actors:

Annabelle Fox as Mindy Tuckerman

Casey Wortmann as Dr Rosie Morales

William Dufris as Dr Uzdienski

Dani Cervone as Dr Emily Ragus 

Jordan Cobb as the Triage Nurse

Alice Kors as the distressed Mum

Robin Miles as the Nurse

Jonathan Woodward as Voiceover, 911 Operator, and Police Officer

Ian Lowe as Emergency Services Officer

Matt Lieber as the Politician

Newscasters include: Kaitlyn Sawrey, Renita Jablonski and Gabriel Lozada

Plane landing voice over: Peter Leonard

Directed by William Dufris with help from Wendy Zukerman, Kaitlyn Sawrey and Fred Grenhalgh. Recording by Fred Greenhalgh and Peter Leonard. Also thank you to all the Gimlet people who performed various drafts including Chad Chenail, Gabe Lozada, Jasmine Romero and MR Daniel. And a huge thank you to everyone who listened and gave comments - especially the Zukerman Family and Joseph Lavelle Wilson. Finally, a huge thank you to Jorge Just, Stevie Lane, Phoebe Flanigan, Chris Giliberti, Justin McGolrick and Katie Pastore. 

Oct 11 2019

39mins

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Heartbreak: Why does it hurt so bad?

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We’ve all been dumped, but some of us have felt physically sick from a heartbreak -- sometimes really sick. Neuroscientist Prof. Lucy Brown explains how pangs from a heartache might not just be in our heads.

Check out the full transcript here: http://bit.ly/2OhEIi9

Selected references: Lucy’s FMRI study of the rejected in-love college students: http://bit.ly/355Xz5B The social/physical pain overlap in the brain: https://bit.ly/2IkRQiVHow psychological stress affects the immune system: https://bit.ly/333CsiS

Credits: This episode was produced by Michelle Dang, with help from Wendy Zukerman, Rose Rimler, Meryl Horn and Lexi Krupp. Our senior producer is Kaitlyn Sawrey. We’re edited by Caitlin Kenney and Blythe Terrell. Fact checking by Diane Kelly. Mix and sound design by Peter Leonard. Music written by Peter Leonard, Emma Munger, and Bobby Lord. A huge thanks to all the scientists we got in touch with for this episode, including Professor Larry Young, Professor Tiffany Field, Professor Ethan Kross, Professor Sandra Langeslag, and Professor Naomi Eisenberger. A special thanks to the Zukerman family and Joseph Lavelle Wilson.

Oct 03 2019

19mins

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Football: Should We Cancel It?

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America’s favorite pastime seems to be plagued by tragedy. Former NFL players have come forward to say they’re suffering from a serious brain disease. Others have ended their lives. So we wanted to know: how risky is playing football? Cornerback Isiah Swann, neuroscientist Dr. Kevin Bieniek, neurosurgeon Prof. Bob Cantu, and neurologist Dr. Ira Casson weigh in.

Check out the full transcript here: http://bit.ly/2mWkuyR

Note: In this episode we discuss depression and suicide. Please take care when listening to the show. National Mental Health Helpline: 1-800-662-HELP (4357).

Selected references: The preliminary criteria for diagnosing CTE agreed upon in 2016: http://bit.ly/2m4YzW9  Kevin’s brain bank study: http://bit.ly/2mYNm9I The 99% study: http://bit.ly/2lVRyah The Lancet: Neurology letter: http://bit.ly/2lrugbQ and a response: http://bit.ly/2lnmU9c A survey of former NFL players to see how they’re doing: http://bit.ly/2n62JNr

Credits: This episode was produced by Rose Rimler with help from Wendy Zukerman, along with Meryl Horn and Lexi Krupp. Our senior producer is Kaitlyn Sawrey. We’re edited by Caitlin Kenney. Fact checking by Michelle Harris. Mix and sound design by Peter Leonard. Music written by Peter Leonard, Emma Munger, and Bobby Lord. Recording assistance from Dennis Maler. A big thanks to Prof. Adam Finkel, Prof. Rudy Castellani, Assistant Prof. Robert Lynall, Dr. Eckhard Mandelkow, David Chalmers, Buddy Teevens, and many more. Plus a special thanks to Jim Grau, the Zukerman family and Joseph Lavelle Wilson.

Sep 27 2019

31mins

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Exercise: Fat Buster or Belly Flop?

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Lots of people hit the gym to shed unwanted pounds, but they don’t always see results on the scale. This week, we tackle the power of exercise and why you should bother. We speak with obesity expert Dr. Yoni Freedhoff, psychiatrist Dr. Gary Cooney, neuroscientist Prof. Wendy Suzuki and urologist Dr. Stacey Kenfield.

Check out the full transcript here: http://bit.ly/2kqreUR

UPDATE 10/31/19: An earlier version of this episode said that exercise isn’t a reliable treatment for depression. Some scientists reached out to us about clinical trials we missed. These newer trials found that exercise can help with depression. And we now think the research in this space is stronger than we made it sound. We’ve updated the episode.

Selected references: The study which looked at the effect of exercising 5 days a week for a year on weight: http://bit.ly/2mitPR8Gary's Cochrane review on the benefits of exercise for depression: http://bit.ly/2kqrGCxThe study which found that exercise is linked to a lower risk of getting dementia: http://bit.ly/2mj9qeL Stacey's study on exercise and prostate cancer: http://bit.ly/2kuPwgu

Credits: This episode was produced by Wendy Zukerman, with help from Meryl Horn, Rose Rimler and Lexi Krupp. Our senior producer is Kaitlyn Sawrey. We’re edited by Caitlin Kenney and Blythe Terrell. Fact checking by Diane Kelly. Mix and sound design by Peter Leonard. Music by Peter Leonard, Emma Munger and Bobby Lord. Recording assistance from Joel Cox, Andrea Rangecroft, Natalie Jones, and Mark Totti. A huge thanks to all the scientists we got in touch with for this episode, including Professor Virginia Berridge, Professor James Blumenthal, Professor Kirk Erickson, Dr. Tara Walker, Dr. Shannon Halloway, Professor Steven Petruzzello, Dr. Kristine Beaulieu, Dr. Aric Sudicky and many others! A special thanks to the Emmanuel Dzotsi, Zukerman family, and Joseph Lavelle Wilson.

Sep 19 2019

35mins

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Let's...science...AGAIN!

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Science Vs is back September 19th. Fact you next week.

Sep 12 2019

1min

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The Dinosaur Explosion

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Why are there so many new, weird dinosaurs? Friend of the show Joel Werner goes down the rabbit hole, and finds a surprising answer. He speaks to paleontologists Dr. Steve Brusatte and Dr. Jonathan Tennant. Listen to Joel’s podcast The Sum Of All Parts here:  https://ab.co/2YujtzU.

Check out the transcript here: http://bit.ly/2Ts169i

Science Vs will be back in September with a brand new season!

UPDATE 8/13/19: We removed some lines suggesting that the reason that Joel and other people growing up in the 80s don't know about some dinosaurs, such as Spinosaurus and Edmontosaurus is because of the "Dino Explosion" in the 1990s. In fact, Spinosaurus was introduced in the scientific literature in 1915 and Edmontosaurus in 1917. 

Credits: This story came from the podcast the Sum of All Parts which is produced and hosted by Joel Werner. Jonathan Webb is their science editor, sound design by Joel Werner and Mark Don. Additional fact checking by Lexi Krupp and additional music and engineering by Peter Leonard. 

Aug 08 2019

21mins

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SHARKS!!!

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Are sharks the super-predators we think they are? Or have we been baited with great white lies? To find out, we interviewed shark researchers Dr. Taylor Chapple, Dr. Tricia Meredith and Dr. Chris Pepin-Neff, along with surfer Mike Wells.

Check out the full transcript here: http://bit.ly/34hG3ug

UPDATE 6/14/19: We removed a line from the episode implying that if you’ve eaten any takeaway fish and chips in the UK, there's a good chance you’ve unknowingly eaten shark meat. In fact, shark meat is not always sold surreptitiously. In the UK and in Australia shark meat it is often labeled flake, rock or huss.

Selected references: Tricia’s shark smelling study: https://bit.ly/2F4OsqrChris’s book “Flaws”: https://bit.ly/2IGKe9BTiger shark study here: https://bit.ly/2Q0S94M and video here: https://bit.ly/2XFHj7o This paper on sharks and rays at risk of extinction: https://bit.ly/31wauMB

This episode was produced by Rose Rimler with help from Wendy Zukerman, along with Meryl Horn and Michelle Dang. Our senior producer is Kaitlyn Sawrey. We’re edited by Blythe Terrell and Kaitlyn Sawrey. Fact checking by Diane Kelly. Mix and sound design by Peter Leonard. A huge thanks to the amazing team of musicians who helped us with Flaws and our Snark Week music: Peter Leonard, Bobby Lord, Emma Munger, and Marcus Thorne Bagala. Recording assistance from Caroline Perryman, Shannon Cason, Sam Turken, Beth McMullen, and Jesse Wentzloff. A big thanks to George Burgess, Peter Pyle, Dr. David Shiffman, Professor Peter Klimley, Prof. Jelle Atema, Prof. Stephen Kajiura, Dr. Blake Chapman, Nynke de Haas and others. Plus a special thanks to the Zukerman family and Joseph Lavelle Wilson.

Jun 14 2019

42mins

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How Bad Science Killed A President

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When President Garfield was shot by an assassin in 1881, the best and brightest in medicine and science did everything they could to save him - and turned the President into a human guinea pig. But they missed something big, that could have saved him. To find out what it was, we spoke to surgeon and medical historian Dr Ira Rutkow, and Sara Murphy - collections manager at the National Museum of American History.

To find out more about this story, read Dr Ira Rutkow’s book - James A. Garfield: The American Presidents Series.

Check out the transcript, with all the citations here: http://bit.ly/33EMVl7

This episode was produced by Kaitlyn Sawrey with help from Wendy Zukerman, along with Meryl Horn, Rose Rimler and Michelle Dang. We’re edited by Blythe Terrell, extra editing help from Caitlin Kenny. Fact checking by Michelle Harris. Mix and sound design by Peter Leonard. Music written by Emma Munger, Peter Leonard, and Bobby Lord. Thanks to the National Museum of American History, Dr Howard Markel, Prof. Charles Rosenburg and Candice Millard. 

Jun 06 2019

31mins

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Peanuts: Public Enemy No. 1?

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Peanut allergy in children has been on the rise since the 1990s. What’s to blame? We find a clue in a very unexpected place, and talk to pediatric allergist Prof. Gideon Lack.

Check out the full transcript here: http://bit.ly/2rkEcqL

Selected References: Gideon’s landmark 2015 study: https://bit.ly/2QsvOMvThe mouse rash study: https://bit.ly/2Mf6hZVCDC’s report on rising skin and food allergies (1997-2011): https://bit.ly/2XgjGlJ

This episode was produced by Rose Rimler with help from Wendy Zukerman, along with Meryl Horn and Michelle Dang. Our senior producer is Kaitlyn Sawrey. We’re edited by Blythe Terrell. Fact checking by Diane Kelly. Mix and sound design by Peter Leonard. Music written by Emma Munger, Peter Leonard, and Bobby Lord. Recording assistance from Andrea Rangecroft. A big thanks to Dr. Andrew Dang, Professor Scott Sicherer, Dr. Marshall Plaut, Dr. Kristin Sokol, Dr. Robert Boyle, and others. As well as the Zukerman Family and Joseph Lavelle Wilson.

May 30 2019

17mins

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The Abortion Underground

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Before Roe v. Wade, there were thousands of illegal abortions in the U.S. every year. Some of these were incredibly dangerous; women would use knitting needles or coat hangers to end pregnancies. This, and other illegal methods, could lead to injury or death. In the 1970s, one group of women got fed up and decided to take women's health into their own hands. We talk to “self-helpers” Carol Downer and Francie Hornstein, who led a movement for safe abortions and education for women by women.

Check out the full transcript here: http://bit.ly/2sfqhlB

Selected references: “Back alley” abortions before Roe v. Wade (See chapter 3) https://bit.ly/2JA6gObA study documenting the techniques used for illegal abortions in the 60s https://bit.ly/2VLKl8eA Woman's Book of Choices by Dr. Rebecca Chalker (PhD) and Carol Downer https://bit.ly/2K5MbP4

This episode was produced by Wendy Zukerman, with help from Meryl Horn, Rose Rimler, and Michelle Dang. Our senior producer is Kaitlyn Sawrey. We’re edited by Blythe Terrell. Editing help from Caitlin Kenney, Kaitlyn Sawrey, Sruthi Pinnemanni, Jorge Just, Lulu Miller and Chris Neary. Fact checking by Diane Kelly. Mix and sound design by Peter Leonard. Music by Peter Leonard, Emma Munger and Bobby Lord. Recording assistance from Anny Celsi. A huge thanks to all the scientists we got in touch with for this episode, including Dr Sara Matthiesen, Professor Verta Taylor, Professor John DeLancey, Professor Carole Joffe, Professor Johanna Schoen, and Dr. Denise Copelton. And special thanks to Michele Welsing and the team at Southern California Library, Dr Becky Chalker, Jonathon Roberts, Jim Aspholm, Odelia Rubin, Alice Kors, the Zukerman family, and Joseph Lavelle Wilson.

Women's Liberation Day: New York, San Francisco and Berkeley rallies of August 26, 1970 was used courtesy of the Pacifica Radio Archives.

May 23 2019

37mins

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Placebo: Can the Mind Cure You?

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Could fake medicine actually take away your pain or treat a disease? We dig into the science of placebos to find out more about the power of the mind to heal. We speak to medical researcher Prof. Ted Kaptchuk, neuroscientist Prof. Fabrizio Benedetti and medical psychologist Prof. Manfred Schedlowski.

UPDATE 5/13/19: We changed a few things in this episode to clarify facts. An earlier version of this episode implied that the placebo surgery for knee and back pain was really effective in itself. In fact, these studies found that some placebo surgeries work as well as real surgeries. In other words, patients reported less pain after both the real surgery and the placebo surgery.

We also said that Pavlov’s studies used a bell to condition dogs. Whether Pavlov himself used a conventional bell is debated in the literature. Some say this was an early translation error from Russian to English. Later studies by his colleagues definitely used a bell.

Finally! We have added a caveat into placebo research more generally to highlight that this research is early and that we don’t have many have long-term studies into placebos, so we don’t know how long the placebo effect can last.

Check out the full transcript here: http://bit.ly/2Pug4tK

Selected References: Great summary paper on placebo: https://bit.ly/30cFSzdTed’s IBS “open label” placebo study with Linda…: https://bit.ly/2E2O4ZkFabrizio’s high altitude headache study: https://bit.ly/2vMZj3zManfred’s first immunosuppression study with the green drink: https://bit.ly/2VXPDll

Credits: This episode was produced by Wendy Zukerman, with help from Rose Rimler, Meryl Horn, and Michelle Dang. Our senior producer is Kaitlyn Sawrey. We’re edited by Blythe Terrell. Editing help from Caitlin Kenney. Fact checking by Michelle Harris. Mix and sound design by Peter Leonard. Music by Peter Leonard, Emma Munger and Bobby Lord. Recording assistance from Fabian Mirko May, Mary Dooe and Maggie Penman. A huge thanks to all the scientists we got in touch with for this episode, including Dr. Diletta Barbiani, Dr. Cynthia McRae, Dr. J Bruce Moseley, Professor Apkar Apkarian, Professor Jon Stoessl, and others. And special thanks to Lynda McKenzie, the Zukerman family, and Joseph Lavelle Wilson.

May 09 2019

32mins

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Vaccines: Time for a Booster Shot [Rebroadcast]

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Autism, seizures, and overloaded immune systems - could these really be side effects of vaccines? From the archives, we bring back our dive into the science to find out how safe vaccines really are. We spoke to public health researchers Prof. Dan Salmon and Prof. Amy Kalkbrenner and neurologist Prof. Ingrid Scheffer.

Check out the full transcript here: http://bit.ly/2IVgabd

Selected References:

The National Academies (aka Institute of Medicine) report on vaccine safety A report on the genetic underpinnings of epilepsyThis study looked for neurologic disorders after the MMR shot in half a million kidsThis one looked at all children born in Denmark between 1991 and 1998

Credits: This episode has been produced by Heather Rogers, Wendy Zukerman, and Shruti Ravindran. Production help from Rose Rimler. Our senior producer is Kaitlyn Sawrey. We’re edited this week by Blythe Terrell and Annie-Rose Strasser. Fact checking by Michelle Harris, with help from Rose Rimler. Sound design by Martin Peralta. Music written by Bobby Lord. For this episode we also spoke with Dr. Saad Omer, Dr. Neal Halsey, Dr. Paul Offit, Dr. Frank DeStefano, and Prof. Alison Buttenheim. And an extra thanks to Bonnie Stanway, Ivona Stamatoska, Reese and Walter Ludwig, the Zukerman Family, Joseph Lavelle Wilson and - of course! - Leo Rogers. 

May 02 2019

39mins

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Fertility Cliff: Is It Real?

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We’re often told to have kids quickly, before our biological clock strikes and we fall off the fertility cliff. This week we find out it’s that’s true for women or men. And if the cliff is real, can you do anything about it, like freezing your eggs? Plus, the sperm-aggedon! We speak to epidemiologist Prof. Lauren Wise, reproductive endocrinologist Dr. Mary Sabatini, and andrologist Prof. Allan Pacey.

UPDATE 7/10/19: A previous version of this episode incorrectly identified the nationality of a character in Indiana Jones. The episode has been updated accordingly.

Check out the full transcript here: http://bit.ly/35DfLE8

Selected references:  Lauren’s two studies looking at the fertility cliff. Click here if you want to be in one of her studies!  Two studies looking at success rates of freezing eggs at different ages Review of the effect of paternal aging on the health of the offspringThe 2017 meta-analysis which shows the drop in sperm counts in several parts of the world

Credits: 

This episode was produced by Meryl Horn, with help from Wendy Zukerman, as well as Rose Rimler and Michelle Dang. Our senior producer is Kaitlyn Sawrey. We’re edited by Blythe Terrell. Fact checking by Diane Kelley. Editing help from Caitlin Kenney. Mix and sound design by Peter Leonard. Music by Peter Leonard, Emma Munger and Bobby Lord. Recording assistance from Mary Dooe and Andy Short. A huge thanks to all the scientists we got in touch with for this episode, including Dr. Richard Lea, Dr. Hagai Levine, Professor Jens Peter Ellekilde Bond, and others. And special thanks to everyone at Gimlet who listened to the episode, the Zukerman family, and Joseph Lavelle Wilson. And a huge thanks to Christopher Suter.

Apr 25 2019

42mins

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