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Pure Dog Talk

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Pure Dog Talk is the VOICE of PureBred Dogs. We talk to the legends of the sports and give you tips and tools to create an awesome life with your purebred dog. From dog shows to preservation breeding, from competitive obedience to field work, from agility to therapy dogs and all the fun in between; your passion is our purpose. Pure Dog Talk supports the American Kennel Club, our Parent, Specialty and All-Breed Clubs, Dog Sports, Therapy, Service and Preservation of our Canine Companions.

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Pure Dog Talk is the VOICE of PureBred Dogs. We talk to the legends of the sports and give you tips and tools to create an awesome life with your purebred dog. From dog shows to preservation breeding, from competitive obedience to field work, from agility to therapy dogs and all the fun in between; your passion is our purpose. Pure Dog Talk supports the American Kennel Club, our Parent, Specialty and All-Breed Clubs, Dog Sports, Therapy, Service and Preservation of our Canine Companions.

iTunes Ratings

205 Ratings
Average Ratings

So full of information

By MzJoan - Nov 21 2019
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I have been in the dog fancy for 20 years and I have learned quite a bit from this program.

Great Info

By jordanmichelle89 - Mar 20 2019
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Love this podcast. So much knowledge is shared.

iTunes Ratings

205 Ratings
Average Ratings

So full of information

By MzJoan - Nov 21 2019
Read more
I have been in the dog fancy for 20 years and I have learned quite a bit from this program.

Great Info

By jordanmichelle89 - Mar 20 2019
Read more
Love this podcast. So much knowledge is shared.
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Pure Dog Talk

Latest release on Feb 27, 2020

The Best Episodes Ranked Using User Listens

Updated by OwlTail about 13 hours ago

Rank #1: 208 – Dr. Carmen Battaglia – Breeding SUPER Dogs | Pure Dog Talk

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Carmen Battaglia’s Recipe for Breeding SUPER Dogs

Dr. Carmen Battaglia, AKC Board member, judge and author joined Pure Dog Talk host Laura Reeves for a LIVE seminar sponsored by Del Monte Kennel Club. Battaglia shared information about his SUPER dog breeding program featuring pedigree research, supplements, early stimulation and socialization.

“I can’t teach everything you need to know on this subject in an hour,” Battaglia chuckled. “Do your homework!” His deep and resource-rich website, Breeding Better Dogs, is an impressive place to start.

Battaglia’s SUPER dog program is designed to produce dogs which are mentally and physiologically superior to their competitors, with great stress tolerance and disease resistance.

“Anybody who’s willing to do the work can breed these dogs,” Battaglia said.

Pedigree research

Breeding these outstanding dogs starts with selecting the right sire and dam. The 28 ancestors shown on a typical three generation pedigree tell us nothing heritable, Battaglia observed.

“You need to understand the strengths and weaknesses in a pedigree,” Battaglia said. “The conformation, health and behavior traits we want don’t show up in names, titles and certifications.”

He recommended incorporating the stick dog and symbols pedigree systems in order to identify conformation, health and specific behavioral traits to make an ideal pairing. The symbols pedigree, Battaglia said, is designed to enable breeders to manage the “dreaded diseases” – those that kill, cripple, cause early death or blindness.

Breeding systems such as line-breeding, formula breeding and “breeding up” are all useful tools for producing superior dogs, Battaglia said.

Once the pedigree plan is established and the breeder is ready to move forward, Battaglia offers an extended program to build on the pedigree.

Supplement, stimulate, socialize

He recommends supplementing the dam with DHA from the first day she is bred to the day she weans the puppies. And supplementing the puppies from the day they are weaned until 14 weeks old. DHA supplement enhances the brain of the fetus, he added, noting that by 14 weeks old the puppy’s brain is 90 percent developed. Research shows these puppies will test 50 percent smarter than puppies fed a lower amount or not supplemented at all.

The next step in the SUPER dog program is early neurological stimulation. This program involves touching the puppies toes, rotating their body positions and placing them on a cold surface daily from the third to the 16th days of life. This system produces notable improvement in cardiovascular development, but Battaglia strongly cautions that too much of a good thing is a fatal error.

As the puppies grow in these carefully designed and developed litters, other important steps include allowing the puppy to watch its dam perform a specific desired task; socializing them to new places, sounds and smells; and, “enrichment” exercises to teach the dog to focus in a new environment.

The SUPER dogs program is being used to help breeders in the US produce the explosives detection dogs at home that are in demand for protecting our military and civilian installations. AKC is hosting a conference to bring together stakeholders, Battaglia said, to advance this important project.

Enjoy this tremendous opportunity from one of the legends in our purebred dog community.

Aug 10 2018



Rank #2: 217 – Crate Training, Jumping Up, Digging and Behavior Analysis | Pure Dog Talk

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Behavior analysis and positive reinforcement create success

Animal behaviorist Lara Joseph shares her expert knowledge on understanding our dog’s behavior, how to read signals from the dog and use behavior analysis to shape a new future.

Joseph knows for a fact that positive reinforcement training works. She uses it extensively with zoo animals and exotics, as well as companion dogs.

Lara Joseph using a “target stick” to shape behavior in a giraffe.

“You can’t use force or aversives on exotics,” Joseph said. “You know you can make your dog sit by pushing its butt down… try doing that with a giraffe!”

Joseph discusses redirecting behaviors by correctly identifying the reinforcers. In other words, what, exactly, does the dog want and how is the behavior he is exhibiting fulfilling that desire.

The “Terrible twos” are a tremendous opportunity to train a dog, Joseph said. The dog is at an age where it is constantly manipulating its environment to get the consequences it desires.

“The animal is learning contingencies and consequences in its environment,” Joseph noted. “If the animal can see, hear, smell or feel you, you are training it, whether you realize it or not. The key question is, what are you training it to do.”

Shaping Behaviors

Crate training, digging and jumping up are all “behaviors” that can be shaped, Joseph said. Redirecting the dog’s behavior requires correctly identifying the “reinforcer” – in other words what the dog wants – and then providing that reinforcer for an acceptable behavior.

She cautions against moving too quickly through a training plan. Start small and reinforce big.

“If you take too big of steps in your shaping plan,” Joseph said, “it can turn what you’re trying to train in to an aversive, something the dog doesn’t like.”

Joseph said that what dogs understand is contingencies – “if I do this, this happens…. If I do THIS, this doesn’t happen…”

Another important option is called a “Conditioned Reinforcer.” In other words, every time the dog goes in the crate, it gets a treat that it is available no other time.

Listen to your dog

Joseph also addressed the topic of aggression in dogs.

“Aggression serves a purpose for the dog,” Joseph observed. “It gets them what they want. If the growl didn’t work, he’ll try a lunge. If you pull your hand back, and the dog wanted you to retreat, it’s now learned what works.”

Hear what the dog is trying to tell you, Joseph said. Reinforce the good behavior. Pay attention to the dog. All dogs really want is attention. Be consistent. Create duration.

Check out our newest advertiser, Trupanion!

Don’t miss Allison Foley’s Tip of the Week from the Leading Edge Dog Show Academy: Overweight dogs and green beans!


Lara Joseph is the owner of The Animal Behavior Center, an international, educational center focusing on teaching people how to work with animals using positive reinforcement and approaches in Applied Behavior Analysis. She is a professional animal behavior consultant and trainer. Lara travels internationally giving workshops, lectures, and provides online, live-streaming memberships on animal behavior, training and enrichment. Lara’s focus is on the companion animal community, zoos, shelters and wildlife ambassadors. Her daily work focuses on teaching people through her live-streaming services on animal training, behavior modification, and enrichment to people all over the world via her Projects and Memberships. She sits on the advisory board for All Species Consulting, The Indonesian Parrot Project, and is director of animal training for Nature’s Nursery, a wildlife rehabilitation center in Whitehouse, Ohio.  She is also the founder of several animal organizations for animal welfare. She has been asked to co-author and is currently working on international manuals of animal behavior and training. Lara is a professional member of The Animal Behavior Management Alliance, The International Association of Avian Trainers and Educators, and The Pet Professional Guild. She is a published author and writes regularly for several periodicals including The Pet Professional Guild’ BARKS for professional dog trainers, a behavior columnist for BirdTalk Magazine, and contributes to blogging for Deaf Dogs Rock. She is a guest lecturer in the Zoo Biology; Animal Nutrition, Behavior & Diagnostics taught by Dr. Jason Crean at St. Xavier University; Chicago. Lara has presented for a wide variety of organizations such as The Philadelphia Zoo, The Ohio State Exotic Veterinary Club, The Association of Avian Veterinarians, Best Friends Animal Society, The Pet Professional Guild, The International Wildlife Rehabilitator’s Conference, The Autism Model School, and The Wheaton College division of Applied Behavior Analysis, and at Best Friends Animal Sanctuary for the Pet Professional’s Guild’s Workshop. For more information visit her website at Also her Facebook page where she live streams a weekly episode on ABA and its use with animals called Coffee With The Critters: Find her on Instagram:

Sep 11 2018



Rank #3: 226 – Jane Killion Shares the Evolution of Puppy Culture | Pure Dog Talk

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Jane Killion on Puppy Culture for New and Experienced Breeders Alike

Jane Killion, Mark Lindquist and Bull Terriers.

One of my most frequently requested interview subjects, Jane Killion, author and breeder, joins me today to talk about how Puppy Culture got started and why even experienced breeders should check it out.

Killion is a Bull Terrier breeder since 1997. She wanted to do some performance sports with her famously not very tractable breed. So, she wrote a book called When Pigs Fly to help folks train their non-biddable dogs in agility.

When that took off, Killion left her corporate job with the intention of making a video about the book. Meanwhile she had a litter due and said, to herself, “Wouldn’t it be fun to video development periods in Pat Hastings Puppy Puzzle book.”

Explosion of demand

“Four years later, we have a five-hour DVD and an entire series of protocols per development period,” Killion noted. “I thought it would be a 20 minute video!” That idea changed and developed as Killion saw how deep the topic was. So she reached out to scientists, experts, dog trainers to add information.

“Puppy culture isn’t really anything new,” Killion said. “It’s the gift of wisdom passed to me by my mentors and augmented with science. It’s what we all do, but more organized.”

Like many of us who have breeding dogs for an extended period, Killion said she did most of the things noted in the book. She noted, though, that “doing things as you go along is ok, but not optimal. You start observing puppies and really getting in heads. Breeders start to look at puppies like a behaviorist vs a breeder.”

Puppy Culture is “what I wish someone could have put into my hands when I had my first litter,” Killion said.

Protocols based on behavioral markers

One of the primary pieces of the program, Killion added, is to peg socialization and experience protocols to a puppy’s individual behavioral timeline, not a temporal timeline.

“For example, our puppies at 6 weeks enter the Curiosity period ,” Killion said, “– the highest approach and lowest retreat time – which is a great time to do heavy in home socialization. Other breeds, that period arrives at drastically different ages.”

The days of breeders with everything in their heads who are willing to share are gone, Killion noted.

“We’re trying to step into that void. Puppy Culture, we call it a mentor in a box,” Killion said. “Like you, we’re people who have a passion, with the overarching goal of infecting the next generation with our enthusiasm.”

Oct 12 2018



Rank #4: 251 – Trainer Suzanne Clothier on Relationship Building with Your Dog | Pure Dog Talk

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Suzanne Clothier Talks Relationship Building

Suzanne Clothier has developed a training and assessment system built entirely around relationship building with our dogs.

“Animals have been my whole life,” Clother said. “It’s a lifelong passion, that has informed a fascinating journey.”

Clothier’s seminal book, Bones Would Rain from the Sky, was published in 1998. Her warm, down to earth, compassionate nature shines through as she shares her journey and what she’s learned.

Relationship building

“If you have a trusting relationship,” Clothier said, “it’s then about what you enjoy doing together.”

Training show dogs is a skill like any other, Clothier noted. She added that not all dogs have “the Sandra Dee gene” that makes them enjoy being the center of attention.

“We’re like crazy stage moms,” Clothier said, “asking our dogs to be on stage.” For dogs who train well at home but don’t give us the performance we’re expecting at a show, “It’s like singing in the shower,” she noted, “It’s not the same as auditioning for The Voice.”

Clothier’s goal is to evaluate all interactions with a dog through the prism of “How does this affect the relationship with me and the animal.”

Tools for the job

Her training goals are to stay humane, fair, loving and respectful, Clothier said.  She has developed tools for trainers to help diagnose both handlers and dogs.

Her Relationship Assessment Tool helps clarify “which end of the leash is contributing to the problem,” Clothier said. “What do I need to fix. And where’s the good stuff. What can we build on.”

She’s also created an ap, to be released this month, that enables owners, handlers and caretakers to literally track exactly how a dog is feeling on a given day. This Functional Assessment Tracking program provides feedback using the dog’s behavior, activity, food intake etc to determine, literally, “how are you today.”

For more information, visit:

Jan 08 2019



Rank #5: 191 — Love the Breeds: German Shorthaired Pointer Roundtable | Pure Dog Talk

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German Engineered for Versatility

GSP on point at a Wounded Warrior hunt at Camp Lejeune. Photo By: Lance Cpl. Jonathan G. Wright

German Shorthaired Pointers are “energetic and athletic,” “full of vim and vigor” and “need a little room to burn off energy *every* day,” according to the experts.

PureDogTalk caught up with three long time GSP breeders at their national specialty show in Boise, Idaho in May. Char Rutar, AKC Conformation judge, Bob Straight, AKC Field Trial judge and David Nauer, AKC Agility judge, whose wife, Karen, judged the national specialty.

Living with German Shorthaired Pointers

You’re not buying a maniac, the breeders said, but the breed is built to work for a long time with tremendous endurance. They are high drive and high energy. Biddability, the dog’s willingness to work for its owner, is a key quality for which breeders strive.

Bob Straight, AKC Field Trial judge and GSP breeder

“People need to be aware of how they will enjoy life with this breed,” Straight said. Nauer added that owners can choose a variety of venues to vent the breed’s energy. Jogs, hiking, hunting, agility, dock diving, scent work, tracking are all games these dogs like to play.

All three of our experts agreed that a dog’s structure is the key for its longevity in active sports.  “Your pick conformation dog is my pick agility dog also,” Nauer said.

“They are extremely people oriented,” Rutar noted. “While there are differences in bloodlines, they aren’t as needy as some hunting breeds.”

Hunting with GSP

“If I had half the energy these dogs have in the field, I’d control the world,” Straight said. “Talk to the breeder,” Rutar added. “Find out what makes the breeder tick and you will find out what is important to them in their dogs.” Straight, agreed, noting that buyers should ask the right questions of the breeder to get the right match with the type of hunting dog they want.

Char Rutar, AKC conformation judge and GSP breeder.

From “All Age” field trial dogs, those that show the maximum independence when the handler is on horseback, to “meat dogs” that work close to a walking handler, Shorthairs offer a working style for every hunter.

Healthy dogs

“It’s important to deal with a breeder who will guarantee the health of dog,” Straight noted. “The breeder should warrant that the dogs have met the (GSPCA) health testing requirements.”

The national club recommends that breeders test for health hips, hearts, eyes, elbows, and a genetic disease called CD. (

“Shorthairs are relatively healthy,” Rutar said. “We’ve seen some epilepsy. Some cancers pop up. A few heart problems. These are all there at a pretty manageable level. Breeders have religiously been screening hips for at least 30 years.”

A note from your host: The human race is the least inbred mammalian species in the world. WE have all these diseases. Breeders can mitigate the incidence with ethics and responsibility.

David Nauer, AKC agility judge and GSP breeder.

The BEST thing about GSP?

  • Enthusiasm at whatever they do.
  • Versatile hunter, versatile companion.
  • They exude joy.

Parent Club Website:

Notable moments in GSP Conformation history:

Allison Foley’s Leading Edge Dog Show Academy Tip of the Week

Grooming the dog so it’s comfortable for you, might make the dog uncomfortable. Allison gives us her tips on how to avoid battles on the grooming table.

Jun 12 2018



Rank #6: 223 — Rhodesian Ridgeback: Power and Elegance | Pure Dog Talk

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Balancing act of the Rhodesian Ridgeback

Denise Flaim, Rhodesian Ridgeback breeder, judge and historian, shares her knowledge as the RRCUS National Specialty kicks off in Colorado.

The first impression of a Rhodesian Ridgeback, Flaim said, is a “smooth dog with an unbroken fluid line from the top of the head, lovely crested neck, smooth withers, straight topline, gently sloped croup, slightly longer than tall, handy sized for trotting all day. Well angled. Not an empty front, moves freely and effortlessly. Lovely head, round dark eye, triangular ear.”

The Ridgeback, Flaim noted, is that perfect balance of speed and strength. The original dogs routinely coursed large African antelope. As with other sighthounds, the size and bone of the breed always parallels the prey it hunts. They need to be heavy enough to bring down large game like a 200-pound Nyala; lithe and fast enough to catch it. While the breed features a diversity of style within type, the ideal is a dog lacking exaggeration in any part.

“If you don’t know (a breed’s) history you’re doomed,” Flaim said “because you can’t understand its function and morphology.”

Ch. Swahili Jeff Davis — first American champion — with owner and founding Ridgeback breeder Col. Morrie de Pass of Mississippi.

Ridgebacks in Africa

In brief, according to Flaim, when the Dutch went to southern Africa in the late 1600s, they found an unimproved “border collie looking” dog that had a dorsal rise of hair on its back, Flaim summarized. These indigenous dogs that hung out with Koi Koi people, interbred with the Continental dogs, resulting in dogs that had native knowledge, resistance to tse tse flies and more.

Buff of Between Two Rivers, South African, whelped 1924.

The Boers moved to Rhodesia in the late 1800s, and a popular big game hunter acquired ridged bitches and interbred them with his pack. The resulting dogs were excellent at lion hunting.

Flaim was quick to clarify what that actually entailed. The dogs would be taken with rich European hunting parties, in small packs of two or three, to find a lion and harass it, like a matador. Overall athleticism that let the dogs get out of the way of claws was most important.

“Any Ridgeback foolhardy enough to make contact with a lion, soon exited the gene pool in an unceremonious fashion,” Flaim said.

What travels with the ridge?

An endurance trotting breed, the Rhodesian Ridgeback should move effortlessly and freely.

The breed’s trademark ridge is important, Flaim observed, because “nothing exists in nature if it’s not functional. In Ridgebacks, the dogs that carried the ridge were superlative hunters and could survive in the harsh climate of southern Africa.

“Who knows what native knowledge or traits travel with that ridge,” Flaim said. “For example, Ridgebacks don’t jump into standing pools of water. They want graded entrances. In Africa, if you jump into a standing pool of water you encounter something that wants a snack.”

Rhodesian Ridgeback parent club website:

And Allison Foley, Leading Edge Dog Show Academy, tells us how to use cornstarch for dematting.

Oct 01 2018



Rank #7: 334 – Golden Retriever Breed Education with Michael Faulkner | Pure Dog Talk

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Golden Retriever Breed Education with Michael Faulkner

In honor of the Golden Retriever National Specialty, currently under way in Southern California, Host Laura Reeves visits with legendary judge and breeder Michael Faulkner. Actively involved with Goldens since 1969, Faulkner is deeply passionate about his breed.

Primarily a hunting dog

“This is the GOLDEN Retriever,” Faulkner said. “They have a coat of lustrous gold, they are a water dog, their form and function is to retrieve.

“The standard says ‘primarily a hunting dog,’ moderate, to be shown in good, hard working condition,” Faulkner said

“Yellow Wavy Coated Retrievers”

The double coat protects and wraps the body, Faulkner said. Early historians talk about the development in Scotland of “yellow, wavy coated retrievers.

“Quite often when you’re judging my breed you’re going to see a coat that wraps the body and it may have a slight wave. That’s perfect. We love it when you can see the natural wrap and frame. The coat should never be curly, but wave is perfectly acceptable,” Faulkner said.

Moderation in all things

Faulkner compares the correct Golden Retriever to a cow: “Moderate, legs underneath them, big rib cage, short loin, level back, thick thigh, tail straight off the back. It’s not a complicated breed.”

A well-known stickler and “old guard” in the breed, Faulkner insists that Goldens were never meant to be “fluffy” and that they “should not look like a baby Newfy.”

Proportions are the biggest thing next to grooming, Faulkner said. The breed standard calls for the body to be [12:11], just off square. They should never be long and low.

Gentleman’s gun dog

“The dogs are not supposed to roll, or lumber (when they move),” Faulkner said. “They are supposed to converge to the center line of travel. People forget that they are supposed to be primarily a hunting dog.

“They were kept by the nobility. Bred to go out with the hunter, work close to their side, bring the bird back, shake dry and lie next to fire.”

The cold water and rocky terrain of the breed’s native Scotland made endurance essential, Faulkner noted. Any exaggeration would hinder the working dog’s efficiency.

Pure Dog Talk is sponsored by:

Oct 25 2019



Rank #8: 278 — Pat Hastings Wants to Make YOU a Winner With New Book | Pure Dog Talk

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Pat Hastings Wants to Make YOU a Winner With New Book

Pat Hastings awarding Best of Breed at one of four Doberman Pinscher Club of America national specialties she has judged.

Author, breeder, handler, judge. Pat Hastings has worn an array of hats in the dog world. Her new book “Let’s Make You a Winner: A Judge’s Perspective on Showing Dogs” is the most recent offering in what she calls a sort of accidental journey.

“Puppy Puzzle,” Hastings first and most well-known project, started with structural engineers. Separating hearts from minds enables people to see the structure. It isn’t difficult to understand, Hastings said, but dog people have failed to see the obvious. “Whether it’s dog breeding or bridges, if you don’t build them for the purpose you use them, they break.”

The more we learn, the more our dogs benefit

Pat Hastings’ new book, “Let’s Make You a Winner” is available for purchase at her website.

Hastings noted that one critical “engineering” concept that made an impact on her was that a majority of breeds have three natural balance points.

“The head must be above the topline, the neck must be in front of front legs, and the rear slightly behind,” Hastings said. “The better made the dog is, the easier for it to stand still.”

Another “blinding flash of the obvious” Hastings describes learning regards front assemblies.

“Everybody talks about short upper arms. It’s really easy when you realize that the prosternum is always in a direct line with the point of shoulder,” Hastings noted.

“I have never done a seminar in my life that I didn’t learn something,” Hastings added.

Frustration prompted new book

“As a judge it is frustrating to not be able to put up a nice owner handled dog because they haven’t done anything right. They haven’t raised it, trained it or conditioned it to win. They could be doing so much more winning if they would learn how to do all of it.

“It’s really frustrating to hear people complaining about handlers winning. The handler isn’t what’s beating them. The whole package is winning,” Hastings noted. “There are a lot of really good dogs out there that should be doing more winning, but somebody needs to teach them.”

All of Hastings books, DVDs and more are available at her website:

Apr 12 2019



Rank #9: 225 – Fighting to Preserve our Breeds and their Purposes | Pure Dog Talk

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Inside the battle to preserve racing Greyhounds

Jennifer Newcome, chair of the committee to support greyhounds, joins me to talk about the fight to preserve Greyhound participation in a sport they love and the current ballot initiative in Florida to ban betting on Greyhound racing.

The proposed legislation is a Constitutional amendment that effectively allows Animal Rights extremists to define what constitutes humane treatment of animals, rather than breeders, owners and exhibitors, Newcome said.

Equating a dog’s purpose-bred job with inhumane conditions, is a “terrifying” concept, Newcome added. It creates a vehicle for banning all activities with animals at the constitutional level.

From the Greyhound Club of America:

About The Greyhound


The Greyhound is a sighthound and one of the oldest breeds of dogs. Sighthounds are hunting dogs that pursue running game by sight rather than by scent. This manner of hunting is called “coursing”. The attributes of speed, agility, strength and endurance are necessary to catch and hold game. The feature that distinguishes Greyhounds (and sighthounds) is their ability to run at speeds of 35 miles per hour or more using the double suspension gallop. The Greyhound demonstrates the double suspension gallop in its highest perfection. Their incredible speed comes from the singular combination of skeletal structure, musculature, and the ability to focus completely on the object of the chase.

Greyhounds and other sighthounds course game independently of humans. Sighthounds are unlike other breeds such as herding dogs that take signals from humans when moving sheep from pasture to pen or sporting dog breeds that range out to point and hold birds in one spot until their human indicates it’s time to flush. Once the chase is on and the Greyhound is on its way, there is very little you can do to intervene until the chase is over.

Newcome encourages all Florida residents to vote no on Amendment 13 to protect all of our rights to enjoy the various sports we play with our animals. The American Kennel Club and National Animal Interest Alliance also oppose this legislation.

Oct 09 2018



Rank #10: 297 – Standards: Reading, Interpreting and Understanding the Blueprint | Pure Dog Talk

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Standards: Reading, Interpreting and Understanding the Blueprint

Nannette Newbury, judges education coordinator for United States Australian Shepherd Association, breaks down breed standards.

Newbury’s presentation will help you understand: What are the parts of the standard, what’s a good and bad breed standard, what’s open to interpretation and what isn’t.

Breeders use the standard one way, judges have to use it another way, Newbury noted.

“That judge had to weigh a lot more than soundness,” Newbury said. “What good is it if a dog looks like a coyote and it’s sound. Judges can only go by what’s in the breed standard.”

How to apply the breed standard

Understanding the essence of the breed has to be a priority for judge or breeder, Newbury observed.

When dog shows began, folks had to come up with a way to compare and contrast dogs. The breed standard has to distinguish one breed from another.

“Our breeds came first and then we wrote standards,” Newbury said. “In order to read, interpret and apply a breed standard, you have to have a knowledge of canine anatomy, physiology, structure. It takes time to learn.”

Flaws, faults, implied faults

The breed standard is not a list of negative aspects, Newbury opined, rather it describes ideal.

Hallmarks of a breed are what make it distinct from all others and should be part of a good breed standard.

“If all dogs were perfect, judging would be easy. In the real world, deciding which quality or fault is more or less important and awarding accordingly is the quintessential job of the judge,” Newbury said. “As breeders, you pick your poison. Markings or fronts or whatever, you pick your poison. Judges do the same thing.”

Anything that deviates from the standard is a fault, Newbury noted, while the degree of deviation determines the severity of the fault.

“Go through (your breed) standard and list virtues and ideals.  If the virtue affects original function of the dog, consider those more important,” Newbury said.

“Anybody can find a fault. The hardest thing to do when evaluating a dog is to look at a dog, even one that is of poor quality, and find something good to say about it. It is a gift to be able to find the virtues in a dog.”

There’s always more to learn! Check out previous episodes…

09  Dec  2019
347 — Tracy Szaras: “Pretty Good, but it’s Not Perfect Yet” | Pure Dog Talk Download
05  Dec  2019
346 – Safely Incorporating Our Dogs in Holiday Festivities | Pure Dog Talk Download
02  Dec  2019
345 – Ideas to Grow Our Sport: Amateur CH, Critiques, Welcome | Pure Dog Talk Download
28  Nov  2019
344 – Inspiring True Story: From First Show to Best in Show | Pure Dog Talk Download
25  Nov  2019
343 — Saturday Symposium – Preservation Breeding With Experts | Pure DogTalk Download
21  Nov  2019
342 – History: To Understand the Present, Must Know the Past | Pure Dog Talk Download
18  Nov  2019
341 – How One “Dog Person” is Revolutionizing Flying Our Dogs | Pure Dog Talk Download
14  Nov  2019
340 – The Uber Dog Needs a Job: German Wirehaired Pointer | Pure Dog Talk Download
11  Nov  2019
339 – Crowd Sourcing Knowledge of Devastating Disease | Pure Dog Talk Download
07  Nov  2019
338 — Intestinal Blockages: Prevention, Treatment, Recovery | Pure Dog Talk Download
04  Nov  2019
337 – Black & Tan Dynamos: The Wash & Wear Manchester | Pure Dog Talk Download
31  Oct  2019
336 – 20th Century Secrets in a 21st Century Format, Jaraluv | Pure Dog Talk Download
28  Oct  2019
335 – Jaraluv Scottish Deerhounds: 7 Secrets to Success | Pure Dog Talk Download
24  Oct  2019
334 – Golden Retriever Breed Education with Michael Faulkner | Pure Dog Talk Download
21  Oct  2019
333 – Pyrenean Shepherd: Small, Smart, Suspicious | Pure Dog Talk Download
17  Oct  2019
332 — Secret to Success with Owner-Handler Matt Palmer | Pure Dog Talk Download
14  Oct  2019
331 – John Buddie part 2: Respect, Reverence and Romance | Pure Dog Talk Download
10  Oct  2019
330 – Breeding Rules from John Buddie, Tartanside Collies | Pure Dog Talk Download
07  Oct  2019
329 – Dogs Saving Cats: Livestock Guardians and Cheetahs | Pure Dog Talk Download
03  Oct  2019
328 – Poopy Happens: Puppy Diarrhea Causes and Treatments | Pure Dog Talk Download
30  Sep  2019
327 – MORE on Preserving Our Breeds. What can WE do? | Pure Dog Talk Download
26  Sep  2019
326 – Preserving Our Breeds. What can WE do? Discussion pt. 1 | Pure Dog Talk Download
23  Sep  2019
325 – Dog Judging, Rumors and Reality Checks | Pure Dog Talk Download
19  Sep  2019
324 – Veterinary Voice: Allergies! Food, Inhalant, Fleas & More | Pure Dog Talk Download
16  Sep  2019
323 – Marketing Strategy Ensures Viability of Endangered Breed | Pure Dog Talk Download
12  Sep  2019
322 – The Winning Edge! Panel Discussion With the Masters | Pure Dog Talk Download
10  Sep  2019
321 — Tricks Are for Show Dogs! Improve Focus in the Ring | Pure Dog Talk Download
05  Sep  2019
320 – You ARE What You Eat and So is Your Dog | Pure Dog Talk Download
02  Sep  2019
319 — Cavalettis for Show Dogs with Vicki Ronchette | Pure Dog Talk Download
29  Aug  2019
318 – Owner Handler Secrets: Make a Plan and Be Consistent | Pure Dog Talk Download
26  Aug  2019
317 – New Resources for Purebred Dog Enthusiasts | Pure Dog Talk Download
22  Aug  2019
316 — Ireland’s “Heritage Status” for Native Dog Breeds | Pure Dog Talk Download
19  Aug  2019
315 — Dr. Adam King on Eye Emergencies in Dogs | Pure Dog Talk Download
15  Aug  2019
314 – Dog Shows Through the Eyes of Newbies | Pure Dog Talk Download
12  Aug  2019
313 — Falconry: Relationship of Human, Dog, Bird of Prey | Pure Dog Talk

Jun 18 2019



Rank #11: 273 — Herding Dogs: “Eye,” Competition and Genetic Instinct | Pure Dog Talk

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Herding Dogs: “Eye,” Competition and Genetic Instinct

Tammy Van Deusen works with Shetland Sheepdogs in herding trials.

Herding dog trainer and Shetland Sheepdog breeder Tammy Van Deusen joins host Laura Reeves to share her knowledge.

“Give ’em the Eye”

We talk about “eye” contact, the way Border Collies and Kelpies control stock, versus “loose eye” breeds such as Shelties and the Belgian breeds, that control the stock with their movement.  Van Deusen takes us through all of the testing options, what they are and how to train for them. And most importantly, she talks about the loss of genetic instinct in herding breeds.

Van Deusen’s first advice is to find a good instructor. Check out the facility before you sign up, she said. She works with clients who want to see if their dog has herding instinct. She’ll often give them three to four lessons with her “school sheep” to see if the dog will “turn on” to stock.

If the dog doesn’t have a lot of drive on stock, Van Deusen said, it can still be successful in other performance sports like agility and obedience.

A Sheltie working stock to bring them to the handler.

One of the characteristics Van Deusen is looking for in the dogs is whether they are just chasing versus herding the stock to turn and bring it to you. “Too much prey drive won’t make a good herding dog,” she noted.

Start proving natural instinct

Different breeds work stock differently, Van Deusen said. Certain breeds, like Rottweilers and Corgis, are considered “drovers” – driving the stock forward. Border Collies and Kelpies, with their intense “eye” and low bodies were developed for working huge fields of stock to gather and bring *toward* the handler. The basic farm dog breeds, like Shelties, Tervuren and others, were developed to serve a more multi-purpose function.

“Herding judging should be about the sheep,” Van Deusen said. “They’re looking at the path the sheep are taking, are the sheep calm, more so than the dog. How the stock is moving is what the dog is doing. A good herding run is like watching paint dry. Running stock is running meat off the animals and stressing them out. A dog that works too fast, too intense, loses the rancher money.”

Genetic loss of performance skills and inherited instinct

Shelties work are considered “loose eye, upright” herding breeds who work stock with their movement instead of intense eye contact.

Border Collies have been bred for one thing for thousands of years, Van Deusen noted. As such, the breed’s basic instinct remains strong.

“A lot of breeds, people don’t care anymore about the herding piece,” Van Deusen said. “In two generations, you can lose instinct. I don’t think people realize that.”

Mar 26 2019



Rank #12: 284 – Veterinary Ethics and Building a Relationship with Your Vet | Pure Dog Talk

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Veterinary Ethics and Building a Relationship with Your Vet

Dr. Marty Greer, DVM, JD, president of the Society for Veterinary Medical Ethics visits with Host Laura Reeves about how breeders and veterinarians can work together for a positive outcome.

“Vets are not held in as high esteem as they have been in the past,” Greer said. “And that’s concerning to me. As veterinarians, we touch so many people in a positive way. It’s truly a calling. It’s not just a job that you get in your car and drive there. It has to be a passion, people don’t get rich doing this.”

Too much Dr. Google

“Communication is a really important piece,” Greer said. “Many vets and staff are introverts by nature. Honest open frank communication is the best way to handle any situation.”

Greer recommends that if owners have a particular opinion on diet, vaccines, etc they need to interview vets to find someone they enjoy working with, even if it means driving further.

“Bring ideas but listen to what vet has to say,” Greer said. “Start a conversation that is a give and take.”

Greer noted that up to 30 percent of dogs going to an emergency clinic don’t have good outcomes. She adds that while a client may not have the relationship with the doctor at an emergency or specialty clinic, but these hospitals can do amazing things with new medical procedures.

“Develop a relationship with your vet, even the staff at a local emergency clinic, before you have a crisis,” Greer recommended.

Fear Free Medicine

Greer also suggested that clients check in to some of the methods to condition dogs to quietly accept treatment and handling for a better outcome in any situation, emergent or standard practice.

Telemedicine is a huge, up and coming service, Greer said. While it inherently has some draw backs, she noted that this is the next frontier of veterinary medicine.

“There are multiple services where vets can do real-time, long-distance consultation,” Greer said. “Seismic changes will be happening in the next couple years, with the AVMA releasing new policies recently.”

Other resources referenced in this podcast:

Debra Hamilton’s mediation services:

Dr. Karen Overall:

May 03 2019



Rank #13: 219 – Positive Solutions for Canine Aggression Issues | Pure Dog Talk

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Tips and tools for managing canine aggression using positive reinforcement

Lisa Moore, canine behavior counselor, with three of her dogs at a recent dog show.

Lisa Moore is a canine behavior counselor who works regularly for clients dealing with aggression issues in their dogs. She uses positive reinforcement and counter-conditioning methods to bring these dogs to a point at which they can be safely managed.

“One of my Belgian Tervuren had aggression issues,” Moore said. “The old techniques I had used were not going to be effective without somebody getting hurt. This was my primary motivation for making the switch to positive reinforcement and clicker training.”

A successful obedience competitor prior to her introduction to clicker training, Moore noted that, dog training is an unregulated profession. “Anybody can hang up a shingle and call themselves a dog trainer,” she said.

Moore strongly recommends working with a trainer certified by the Karen Pryor Academy and/or the Association of Professional Dog Trainers.

Common aggression issues

Moore shared advice on three very common types of aggression, how to identify the behavior and how to condition dogs correctly to be able to manage them:

  • Fear aggression
  • Leash reactivity
  • Resource guarding

“Management will always play some sort of role when you have a reactive dog,” Moore noted.

Some general principles to keep in mind, according to Moore, when dealing with aggression issues.

  • There is no room for corrections. Punishing any type of aggressive behavior will make it worse.
  • There are no quick fixes. Corrections will suppress the behavior, but that is not a fix.
  • Dogs will always have “tells” that will give you an early warning that trouble is brewing.
  • Understand and listen to your dog.

Fear aggression, Moore said, is the easiest to fix. “You get the fear to go away, the aggression goes with it,” she added.

Leash reactivity is a situation in which Moore said, more often than not, she has to train the owner not the dog. “The owner tenses up, the dog reads that behavior and says ‘Mom’s worried, something must be wrong,’” she observed.

Resource guarding is a very common, solvable behavior, Moore said. Much more so when it is caught early, before it becomes entrenched. She added that dogs who become habituated to resource guarding can be particularly dangerous.

Learn more about applied behavior analysis in last week’s episode with Lara Joseph.

Allison Foley’s Tip of the Week from the Leading Edge Dog Show Academy regards mentorship and how to find it, and give it!

Sep 18 2018



Rank #14: 365 -- Junior Showmanship from Competing to Judging | Pure Dog Talk

Feb 10 2020



Rank #15: 283 – Dachshund Field Trials and Earthdog Tests Preserve Instinct | Pure Dog Talk

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Dachshund Field Trials and Earthdog Tests Preserve Instinct

Dachshund breeder and field judge Jennifer Milosavljevic shares the excitement of Dachshund field trials  and Earthdog tests.

The Dachshund is first and foremost a hunting breed. Hunters created the breed and by competing in Dachshund field trials, breeders and owners work to preserve the breed.

Dachshund field trials have the objective to “track the game,” meaning to follow a scent trail that a rabbit or hare has left behind. The goal is not to actually catch any prey and no animals are harmed in field trials.

Dachshunds being released in a brace at a field trial.

“The gallery lines up and in a line walks forward beating the brush,” Milosavljevic said. “Once a hare is spotted you yell “Tally Ho.””

Dogs run in packs of two (called a “brace”) and are judged on their ability to search and explore; to pursue and keep control of a trail; the accuracy in trailing; obedience to commands; their “willingness to go to earth” (into a tunnel or underground); courage; and more.

“… aggression was utilized back in the day when the Dachshund was created to fight the badger and any other critters that burrowed underground in the farmers’ fields,” Milosavljevic said. “When you think about it, it takes a lot of courage to go down a tunnel or flush out game that may be larger than you. That type of aggression is no longer desired or needed in any ethical breeding program. However, the ability to hunt or find game is a sought-after trait in many breeding programs.”

Working a scent line at a dachshund field trial.

“I have learned to identify early the dogs that I want in my breeding program,” Milosavljevic said. “Those that have the natural hunting ability. As a breeder and an exhibitor, I have found that keeping the form and function of the dog along with conformation is where I want to be. Conformationally, sound dogs are the building blocks of a breeding program, however, failing to breed in or keep natural instincts may be a disservice to the breed, no matter what breed.”

Jennifer Milosavljevic is an AKC Field Trial and Earthdog judge. She resides in Kalama, WA. She owned her first Dachshund at 11 years old. She breeds, owns and shows miniature smooth Dachshund and occasionally a standard or miniature longhair. She is a member of the Dachshund Club of America, the Cascade Dachshund club and the Dachshund Fanciers of Southwestern Washington.

Carlos Puig and the DC Dachshund That Won the Group at WKC

Apr 30 2019



Rank #16: 302 – Vet Voice: Pre-breeding Protocols, Folic Acid and More | Pure Dog Talk

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Pre-breeding Protocols, Folic Acid, Cleft Palate and More

Photo of a puppy with a cleft palate

Dr. Marty Greer, DVM, JD, joins us for an important conversation about pre-breeding protocols. Greer provides insight on what to do (hint: folic acid!) and what not to do to help ensure a healthy litter.

Bitches who are to be bred should be started on a protocol 6-8 weeks ahead of estrus, Greer noted. Considerations include a proper diet, supplements and when to use flea, tick and heartworm treatments.

“We know from livestock and wildlife that when females are just slightly soft they produce more offspring,” Greer said. “They ovulate more if the caloric intake increases just before mating.”

Appropriate diets should include carbs, Greer said, and avoid phytoestrogens from peas/legumes. Owners should also supplement vitamin b9, folic acid, starting 2 months ahead of breeding to help prevent cleft palates. Greer recommends dosing 5mg/dog/day. For more information on some of the research on this topic, go to

Studies indicate that breeders can insure a 50-70 percent reduction of cleft palates by using folic acid properly.

Cleanliness is next to godliness

Make sure your bitch is clean before visiting the vet or having her puppies. A bath and sanitary trim will keep the vet and the puppies happier!

What NOT to do

Vitamins A and D in excess during the first two trimesters can *cause* cleft palates, Greer said. She also noted that while most of us know not to give steroids orally during pregnancy, that even topical application in ears or eyes is contraindicated.

More myth busting and important advice

  • Can you or should you save cleft palate puppies — Greer shares some of the hard choices to be made
  • Goats milk and cataracts — use an appropriate formula for dogs
  • Colostrum/plasma — frozen plasma can make all the difference
  • Subcu fluids — how and why

Jul 06 2019



Rank #17: 204 — Vet Voice: Identifying, Treating Orthopedic Disorders | Pure Dog Talk

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Identifying and Treating Orthopedic Disorders

Dr. Marty Greer, DVM walked us through the bewildering world of 10 syllable words and scary prognostics when it comes to the various orthopedic disorders than can affect our puppies.

OCD, HOD, pano, Legg-Perthes, premature ulnar growth plate closure, HD, patellar luxation, and more are all covered, along with potential infectious diseases that can cause lameness in young dogs. Greer goes through the differences in the diseases, symptoms and treatments for all of them. Primarily disorders of large, fast growing male dogs, a few affect small breed and achondroplastic dogs.


Panosteitis or Pano is a disorder in which pain is exhibited in shifting limbs.

“You’ll feel the legs and dogs exhibit pain where leg bones join,” Greer said. Pano won’t always show up on xray and it can be difficult to localize the pain. Cause – rapid growing puppy Treatment — non steroidal anti-inflamatory such as Meloxicam.


Osteochondritis Dissecans or OCD is cartilage that peels off, generally in the shoulder. It frequently occurs in both joints. It’s difficult to find on xray. This is a genetic disease with a database at OFA. If the cartilage doesn’t heal with crate rest, it can be treated with arthroscopic surgery.

“Most of these orthopedic problems, don’t let the puppies get too heavy or get too much nutrition,” Greer said. “Stick to the large breed puppy diets that are commercially available. Please don’t start feeding raw meat diets and unbalanced diets to these puppies because there are a huge number of nutritional problems we see with that.”


Hypertrophic osteodystrophy or HOD is an acute, sudden onset disorder that is extremely painful.

“They can be perfectly fine one night,” Greer said “and wake up with the ends of the bones above wrist/hock swollen, very painful, running a fever. It can be associated with recent vaccines.”


In Legg-Calve-Perthes small breed dogs are affected. The disease causes a loss of blood flow to the neck of the femur in the hip joint. Surgery is the treatment.

As in all instances, be sure to consult your veterinarian for specific recommendations.

Jul 27 2018



Rank #18: 177 — Developing An Eye For a Dog: Recorded LIVE | Pure Dog Talk

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Developing An Eye For a Dog: Recorded LIVE

San Mateo Kennel Club invited PureDogTalk to sponsor a live expert roundtable at its all-breed show in March. Exhibitors who participated were treated to a rare opportunity to interact directly with some of the most knowledgeable people in the

Congleton Photography

sport. Judges Pat Trotter, Desmond Murphy and Ken Murray were joined by professional handler Andy Linton to address the topic of developing an eye for a dog and answer audience questions.

“Lifers” Share Their Knowledge

These folks are what we think of as “lifers” in dogs. They started young with a passion for dogs and have applied that intensity to achieving their goals as breeders, handlers and judges. Each and every one of the panelists is a life-long student, who possesses the noted “eye for a dog” we were discussing.

While each of the panelists brought their own perspective to the conversation, there was complete agreement that developing an eye for a dog entails focusing on and rewarding a dog’s virtues rather than picking at faults.

Riffing on a quote from the well-known judge of the ‘60s, Bea Godsol, whom Trotter noted was gifted with a tremendous eye for a dog, the panelists each shared their spin.

Ken Murray – “Great dogs carry their faults well,”

Pat Trotter – “An absence of faults doesn’t guarantee virtue,”

Desi Murphy – “Great dogs blind you to their faults.”

Andy Linton agreed, noting also that, “having an eye for a dog gives you responsibility in so many ways. Do I take that dog to show? Do I put that dog up? Do I breed that dog? The more you know, the more responsible you become.”

“An eye for a dog,” according to Trotter, “is when you see one that gets your attention. It’s an arresting animal because it exudes beauty and correctness. Like a work of art.”

Trotter added wryly, that “Sometimes great dogs get lost at shows where they are the right look. They’re different from the other dogs who are, shall we say, modest at best.”

Even if a person isn’t “born with it” in terms of that eye for a dog, Trotter does believe that study and learning and listening to the greats in a breed will allow someone to develop the skill.

Murphy qualifies that with an observation that some people are simply better at the skill than others.

“I mean there were certain subjects, if I went to school for 10 years on that subject I would never have been any good,” Murphy observed. “… judges are like dogs. You have excellent, very good, good, satisfactory and unsatisfactory.”

When an audience member asked how to know which judges have an “eye for a dog” and how to discern to whom they should show their “great dog that doesn’t look like the others,” Bill McFadden, speaking up from the gallery, noted we all need “an eye for a judge.”

Trotter summed up much of the advice with this observation, “I think one thing that helps breeders is to look at your own dogs with a jaded eye. Look at them with a jaded eye and see their shortcomings. And look at your competition through rose colored glasses. That will help you advance in your efforts to become a better evaluator as a breeder and exhibitor.”

Please enjoy this special and valuable conversation. What it may lack in our normal audio quality, it more than makes up for in the quality of the knowledge.

Additional Q&A coverage from this event is available ONLY to our PureDogTalk Patrons! Click the button on our website to “Be My Patron on Podbean” for more information about joining the “in” crowd.

And, making a surprise Thursday appearance, Allison Foley’s Tip of the Week from the Leading Edge Dog Show academy provides insight on dealing with stains on white dogs.

Apr 24 2018



Rank #19: 279 – Brian Cordova on Poodles, PCA and the Definition of “Poodly” | Pure Dog Talk

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Brian Cordova on Poodles, PCA and the Definition of “Poodly”

Brian Cordova and Daniel Chavez with CH DANFOUR AVALON after winning Best of Breed at PCA.

Miniature Poodle breeder Brian Cordova visits with host Laura Reeves about all things “poodly,” PCA (hint, Christmas in April!) and meeting “god.”

Poodle Club of America, currently hosted at Purina Farms in Missouri, in the early days was an outdoor event on the East Coast, for many years in Maryland. Cordova said the decorations at Purina Farms will make it seem like the dogs are being shown at a park, but with the convenience of being indoors.

Poodles, while attracting luminaries of purebred dogs, can be controversial, Cordova said, because of the trim. The continental clip, which served a function for the breed when retrieving waterfowl, is just window dressing he added.

“Ignore the trim and look at the legs and bones and what you’d judge on any other dog,” Cordova said. “The dog has to be sound. The rest of it is just fancy. When you say ‘poodly,’ people know what that means. It’s carriage and distinction.”

Cordova shows Cha Cha, Ch. Bragabout Dancing Mistress to RWB under “god” Anne Rogers Clark, at PCA. “Cha Cha was a group winner from the classes and was RWB here at PCA in a Gigantic entry of toy bitches. She was defeated by a Delorch bitch from Am. Bred who then won BOV handled by Diane Artigues,” Cordova said.

Cordova remembers his singular visit to the home of Anne Rogers Clark, while he was an apprentice for legendary handler Tim Brazier. The team was showing Clark’s Poodles at the time. There, on “god’s” refrigerator, was a picture of Cordova with Mrs. Clark’s dog.

“It was spine tingling,” Cordova said.

Much of the excitement in Poodles today surrounds the Standard variety, but Cordova said miniatures used to be the popular variety.

“There would be hundreds of (miniatures) entered everywhere,” Cordova said. “But PRA blindness decimated the variety. They really took a tough turn.” Fortunately, he said miniatures had largely separate gene pools for black/brown and white colors. Breeders were able to cross the color gene pools to help clear the problems and build back. When testing for PRA became available, Cordova said that made a huge difference for the variety.

Cordova shared PCA memories going back 30 years of dogs and people. He vividly describes a memory of standing on a field dripping in sweat, watching miniatures, while the judge ran two outstanding bitches of the day against each other.

Apr 16 2019



Rank #20: 268 – Veterinary Voice: Newborn Puppy Risk Factors | Pure Dog Talk

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Managing the Neonate – Early Detection and Management of Newborn Risk Factors

By Dr. Marty Greer, DVM, JD

Breeders, experienced and inexperienced, will benefit from monitoring their newborn pups for the following parameters. This information is modified from recent research gleaned from Neocare in France.

Having specific numbers to assess and monitor can be very helpful in early intervention with newborn pups, to avoid and prevent loss of these fragile new pups. Simply peeking into the whelping box does not give adequate information for either the breeder or the veterinarian asked to help with intervention.

Once you have collected this information, you can open a productive dialogue with your veterinary team. You can only manage what you can measure.

With this data, we can assess, intervene and provide specific treatments early enough in the first few days of life. This will significantly reduce neonatal loss, sometimes reported to be as high as 40 percent of newborn pups.

Parameter Risk Managing the Risk
1.     APGAR score Appearance, pulse, grimace, activity and respiration
A Problem APGAR score of <7 is associated with a 22x risk of death in the 1st 8 hours after birth.

Pups with an APGAR of 4-7 can achieve a 90% survival rate with appropriate intervention.
Repeat or continue resuscitation efforts of suctioning, oxygen, epinephrine, caffeine, ventilation and veterinary care as indicated.

Pups with an APGAR score of 0 – 3 need intensive resuscitation efforts.
2.     Weight
Low birth weight pups have an 81% chance of death in the 1st 48 hours. Pups in the lightest 25% of its breed has an increased risk of mortality during the 1st 2 days of life.

Weight loss – >4% weight loss associated with 8x risk of death.

See formula.
Digital Scale – essential – grams preferred.

Toy breeds – 100 – 200 gm

Medium breeds 200-400 gm

Large breeds 400 – 600 gm

Giant breeds – 600 to 800 gm
3.     Litter size
Large litters have a 4x increased risk of neonatal death associated with low birth weight.
Nutritional support with bottle or tube feeding. Nuby medi-nurser bottle recommended.

Plasma if colostrum is limited.
4.     3 H syndrome
Hypothermia à ileus of gut. à dehydration à hypoglycemia.

Room temperature – 75o F.

Surface temperature – 90 to 95oF.

Rectal temperature 94 – 96oF 1st 24 hours.

Rectal temp 96-98o F 1st week.

Hypothermic pups – 4x increased risk of death.

Humidity should be 55% +/- 10%.

Monitor hydration with MM moisture and urine color.

Plasma (IV, IO, SQ or oral) or colostrum orally along with appropriate antibiotic therapy should be prescribed.
Rectal thermometer and Weather station to monitor temperature and humidity.

Pups cannot regulate their body temperature until they are 3 weeks old.

PuppyWarmer incubator and oxygen concentrator recommended.

Increase surface temperature.

Avoid use of heat lamp due to risk of dehydration, overheating and starting a fire.

T.E. Scott Whelping nest recommended.

Avoid feeding until pup has appropriate rectal temperature for 1 hour. Pups should be warmed slowly.
5.     Hypoglycemia
Glucose of 90 mg/dl or higher at 24 to 48 hours of age– normal.

Glucose < 90 gm/dl = 4x increased risk of death.
Glucometer & foot pad stick.

Karo syrup or 5% dextrose.

Tube or bottle feeding.

PetTest glucometer and sticks recommended.
APGAR Parameter
0 1 2
A = Mucus membrane color
P = Pulse, Heart rate
G = Grimace, Irritability reflex
A = Activity, Mobility
R = Respirations

The following are the 5 P’s of safely tube feeding newborn pups.

Do NOT sponge or eyedropper feed due to risk of aspiration.  If pups are too weak to adequately suckle on a bottle, tube feeding may be safer.

1.     Premeasure tube – enter to rib,

2.     Pinch à vocalize before feeding,

3.     Pass with chin down,

4.     Pass down side, prefer left.

5.     Prewarm – puppy and formula

It is reported that in small animals doxapram is most likely to be beneficial in increasing respiratory efforts in neonates with low-frequency, gasping, erratic pattern of breathing after receiving oxygen therapy (Traas 2009).

Mar 08 2019