RSV vs. rhinovirus bronchiolitis: difference in nasal airway microRNA profiles and NFκ B signaling
There are approximately 130,000 infants hospitalised each year in the US due to bronchiolitis. The majority of these cases are caused by either rhinovirus or respiratory syncytial virus (RSV). Rhinovirus is associated with increased risks of acute and chronic respiratory outcomes compared with RSV, however the underlying mechanisms remain unclear.In this episode, Kohei Hasegawa from the department of emergency medicine at the Massachusetts General Hospital, discusses his recent experiment aimed at unravelling the underlying mechanisms between the two viruses' different outcomes by comparing the nasal airway microRNA profiles of infants infected with either virus. See acast.com/privacy for privacy and opt-out information.
30 Mar 2018
Early human brain development: insights into macroscale connectome wiring
In this episode, we meet Kristin Keunen from The University Medical Centre Utrecht. She and her team used postnatal neuroimaging to map early developmental trajectories of structural brain wiring in preterm and full-term neonates.The study provides valuable insights into the early stages of structural connectome development. See acast.com/privacy for privacy and opt-out information.
11 Dec 2018
Enhanced early prediction of clinically relevant neonatal hyperbilirubinemia with machine learning
Almost 10% of newborn infants develop significant hyperbilirubinemia, and many require phototherapy treatment. This is costly and can increase the likelihood of patients developing allergic diseases. However the costs of not treating neonatal jaundice can be more severe as it can cause lifelong disability. Precise patient monitoring and deliberate treatment assignment are therefore essential for at-risk neonates. In this episode, we meet Sven Wellman, then of the University of Basel's Children Hospital in Switzerland. He and his team developed an online tool that uses machine learning methods to accurately predict neonates at risk of developing clinically relevant hyperbilirubinemia. See acast.com/privacy for privacy and opt-out information.
28 Jun 2019
Comparison of fetal growth by maternal prenatal acetaminophen use
Over-the-counter (OTC) medications are used in an estimated 70% of pregnancies. Acetaminophen, also known as paracetamol is found in a large number of OTC and prescription drugs. Given its prevalence and its ability to freely cross the placenta, researchers are now focusing on the safety of maternal exposure to this drug and its effects on fetal health. There have been inconsistent results in both human and animal studies on the short and long-term effects of acetaminophen use during pregnancy. In this episode, we meet Early Career Investigator, Melissa Smarr, an assistant professor at the Emory University School of Public Health as she describes her study into the effects of prenatal acetaminophen use on fetal growth. See acast.com/privacy for privacy and opt-out information.
7 Aug 2019
Most Popular Podcasts
Paternal smoking and maternal protective behaviors at home on infant's saliva cotinine levels
A major source of second hand smoke (SHS) exposure in infants is the home. Some parents are aware of this risk and make efforts to minimise the exposure by employing a total ban on smoking in the home. However many families opt for a partial smoking ban, only smoking in certain rooms, at certain times, or at certain distances from the child and practice avoidance behaviours like opening windows.In order to better understand how parents' smoking behaviours affected SHS exposure in children, Dr Yi Nam Suen from the University of Hong Kong, Hong Kong, and her team developed a questionnaire for non-smoking mothers with young infants, and measured salivary cotinine levels in their infants. See acast.com/privacy for privacy and opt-out information.
19 Apr 2018
Time-restricted feeding causes irreversible metabolic disorders and gut microbiota shift in pediatric mice
Metabolic syndrome has been a growing problem in recent decades in both adult and pediatric populations. Time-restricted feeding (TRF), has been shown to attenuate metabolic disorders and obesity in adults. It is thought to be superior to surgical interventions and other dietary patterns as it is non-invasive, and does not lead to unbearable hunger. However, there is a lack of data on its effects in pediatric populations. n this episode, we meet Dr. Dandan Hu, who during her time at Peking Union Medical College Hospital, carried out an experiment using a paediatric mouse model to assess the effects of TRM on their metabolism and microbiota. The results were unexpected. See acast.com/privacy for privacy and opt-out information.
6 Mar 2019
NICU Network Neurobehavioral Scale: 1-month normative data and variation from birth to 1 month
Livio Provenzi is based at the Scientific Institute IRCCS Eugenio Medea in Italy, where he is involved in the Preterm Behavioral Epigenetics Project, a longitudinal research project in very pre-term infants looking at the long and short-term epigenetic and behavioral effects of painful and invasive procedures during the NICU stay. Livio and his colleagues sought to provide normative neurobehavioral data for healthy infants over the first month of life using the Neonatal Intensive Care Unit Network Neurobehavioural Scale (NNNS).Acquiring normative comparisons for at-risk populations (e.g. pre-term infants) is key for behavioral studies and for research on early epigenetic biomarkers of developmental risk. See acast.com/privacy for privacy and opt-out information.
20 Jun 2018
Physicians' experiences, attitudes and challenges in a Pediatric Telemedicine Service
Telemedicine is estimated to be used in 25% of patient-doctor interactions. It has benefits, including patient's not having to travel and being seen by healthcare professionals when community clinics are closed. But it is considered a high-stress clinical activity and involves decision making under conditions of uncertainty and urgency.In this episode, we speak to Motti Haimi, a Pediatrician and hemato-oncologist at the Clalit Health Services in Israel. He and his team conducted a qualitative assessment of a Pediatric Telemedicine Service operating in Israel in order to assess challenges according to the physicians themselves. See acast.com/privacy for privacy and opt-out information.
25 Oct 2018
Adrenal function links to early postnatal growth and blood pressure at age 6 in children born extremely preterm
For term-born infants, low birth weight has been shown to correlate with a broad array of adverse cardiometabolic outcomes, and excess glucocorticoid exposure has been linked to these relationships. Also, intra-uterine growth restriction (IUGR) in term-born infants has been linked to subsequent increases in adrenal androgen activity. In this episode, we meet Kristi Watterberg, a professor of Pediatrics at the University of New Mexico who evaluated the relationship between preterm birth to salivary cortisol and dehydroepiandrosterone (DHEA) at age 6, and assessed the relationship of cortisol and DHEA with blood pressure and measures of adiposity. The results suggest interventions to improve the cardiometabolic outcomes of infants born extremely preterm. See acast.com/privacy for privacy and opt-out information.
30 Aug 2019
The lifelong impact of fetal growth restriction on cardiac development
The relationship between birth-weight and heart disease is well documented and is thought to arise from altered developmental trajectories leading to persistent deficits in organ structure and function.Most animal studies looking at the effects of adverse in utero environment have been studied in the context of fetal hypoxia. Less is known regarding the cardiac consequences of maternal malnutrition, a common cause of fetal growth restriction.In this episode, ECI Dr. Brian Stansfield from Augusta University, Georgia, US and his team use a new guinea pig model to test the effects of global maternal nutrient restriction spanning pre-gestation, gestation, and lactation. See acast.com/privacy for privacy and opt-out information.
28 Sep 2018
In vivo textural and morphometric analysis of placental development in healthy & growth-restricted pregnancies using magnetic resonance imaging
Placental dysfunction is a leading cause of morbidity and mortality in children. Yet, despite its central importance, there is a lack of tools to assess in vivo placental health. Ex vivo evaluation of placentas has shown there to be micro-architectural changes with fetal growth restriction (FGR), but currently there are no tools to assess this before birth. In this episode, we speak with this month's Early Career Investigator- Prof. Nickie Andescavage from George Washington University, who recently performed an advanced textural and morphometric of Magnetic Resonance images of the in vivo placenta in healthy and high-risk pregnancies. See acast.com/privacy for privacy and opt-out information.
30 May 2019
Improved cognitive functioning in obese adolescents after a 30-week inpatient weight loss program
Obesity has been shown to be linked with a host of physiological and psychological problems, such as cancer, diabetes and depression. In adults, obesity has also been shown to be related to decreased cognitive function and structural brain differences. The evidence for this effect on cognition is less well established in children and adolescents. In this episode we meet Dr. Stijn Vantieghem from the ARCS research group at the Vrije Universiteit Brussel who conducted a 30 week weight-loss program for obese adolescents to test its effects on their cognitive function. See acast.com/privacy for privacy and opt-out information.
23 Aug 2018
Early career investigator highlight: April
During her PhD Maria Luisa Tataranno performed research into early biomarkers of brain development in preterm neonates. Now a fellow of neonatal neurology of the Wilhelmia Children's Hospital in Utrecht, the Netherlands, Maria and her team have published a paper into the associations between early brain activity and changes in brain morphology and microstructure.In this episode, Maria tells us about her career as a clinical scientist and advocates the early monitoring of preterm neonate brain activity with electroencephalography. See acast.com/privacy for privacy and opt-out information.
30 Mar 2018
Early career investigator highlight: February
Patients with sickle cell disease often experience severe pain as a result of vaso-occlusive episodes. Typically their pain is managed with opioids, however some patients experience continued and increasing pain, believed to be as a result of opioid-induced hyperalgesia or tolerance. Many patients go on to develop chronic pain which is thought to have a neuropathic component, for which opioids are ineffective.Ketamine has been suggested as an adjuvant to opioids to treat chronic and acute pain.In this episode, we meet an Early Career Investigator, Dr. Raissa Nobrega, who has a passion for paediatric pain management and who recently published an exploratory study into the patient characteristics that affect the response to ketamine and opioids in these patients. See acast.com/privacy for privacy and opt-out information.
30 Mar 2018
Ambient pollutants and urgent visits for asthma: A Study in New York City neighborhoods
Pediatric asthma is a chronic, heterogeneous disease that can be triggered by environmental exposures, leading to urgent medical visits. Numerous studies have demonstrated increases in emergency department visits and hospitalizations in association with increasing concentrations of outdoor ambient pollutants. Social and environmental stressors have also been shown to be associated with a stronger relationship between environmental pollutants and asthma development and symptoms.In this study, Dr Lovinski-Desir from Columbia University Medical Center and her team aimed to determine if the relationship between ambient pollutants and urgent visits for asthma varied between New York City neighborhoods with high versus low asthma prevalence. See acast.com/privacy for privacy and opt-out information.
28 Jan 2019
A multilevel-based research framework on congenital Zika syndrome
In 2015, Brazil experienced an unprecedented epidemic of zika virus infection. Concurrently, there was an increased incidence of children born with primary congenital microcephaly. Researchers quickly suspected a link between the zika virus infection in pregnant women and congenital microcephaly due to the so-called congenital Zika syndrome (CZS). With the impending threat of a second outbreak, Marcio Leyser from the University of Iowa proposes a multilevel-based research framework for CZS, based on the multifaceted aspects of the disease. See acast.com/privacy for privacy and opt-out information.
17 Apr 2019
Genetic variation in CRHR1 is associated with short-term respiratory response to corticosteroids in preterm infants at risk for bronchopulmonary dysplasia
Bronchopulmonary Dysplasia (BPD) is a form of Chronic lung disease and results from extreme pre-term birth. Systemic corticosteroid therapy is used postnatally to reduce the severity of BPD, however there is a large range in the phenotypic response to this treatment. In this episode, we speak to Tamorah Lewis, a neonatologist at Children's Mercy Hospital in Kansas City, who aimed to identify pharmacogenetic variants associated with the clinical response to systemic corticosteroid treatment. See acast.com/privacy for privacy and opt-out information.
8 Mar 2019
Gut microbiota in adolescents and the association with fatty liver: the EPOCH study
Non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) is the most common cause of chronic liver disease in the United States. It's all been steadily rising, along with rising obesity levels. Currently, early interventions for NAFLD include dietary, lifestyle counselling, and vitamin supplementation. Recent evidence suggests that the gut microbiota may be involved in the pathophysiology of non-alcoholic fatty liver disease.In this episode, we hear from ECI Maggie Stanislawski from the University of Colorado on her work to expand the options for early intervention into this condition. See acast.com/privacy for privacy and opt-out information.
8 Aug 2018
Association between metabolite composition and metabolic risk across adolescence
Metabolomics has the potential to identify specific targets for primary prevention of metabolic disease. Studies in adults have shown that lean vs obese people show distinct differences in their metabolite composition, sometimes preceding the development of established risk factors associated with metabolic disease. The literature in paediatric populations, however is scant. In this episode, we speak to Prof. Wei Perng, who during her time at the University of Michigan School of Public Health, examined the associations between metabolite composition and metabolic risk across adolescence. See acast.com/privacy for privacy and opt-out information.
25 Jan 2019
Demographic and psychosocial factors associated with hair cortisol concentrations in preschool children
There is a growing body of evidence to suggest that early life stress can have detrimental effects on a child's physical and mental health. Hair cortisol concentrations are increasingly accepted as a cumulative measure of stressful experiences but they are understudied in preschool children. In this episode, we meet Professor Sunny Anand from Stanford University School of Medicine who developed a sensitive assay for hair cortisol concentrations. He and his team took hair samples from children aged 1-4 years in order to uncover psychosocial and demographic factors associated with this measure of physiological stress. See acast.com/privacy for privacy and opt-out information.
4 May 2020