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(2025)

Rank #46 in Christianity category

Religion & Spirituality
Christianity

The Naked Bible Podcast

Updated 2 days ago

Rank #46 in Christianity category

Religion & Spirituality
Christianity
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Biblical theology, stripped bare of denominational confessions and theological systems by exposing context.

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Biblical theology, stripped bare of denominational confessions and theological systems by exposing context.

iTunes Ratings

2025 Ratings
Average Ratings
1896
52
35
16
26

Informative

By Henry Peter - Nov 11 2019
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I don’t get this excellent teaching at my local church!

Super

By jb81854 - Oct 22 2019
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My favorite place for deep but accessible scholarly thought on the Bible.

iTunes Ratings

2025 Ratings
Average Ratings
1896
52
35
16
26

Informative

By Henry Peter - Nov 11 2019
Read more
I don’t get this excellent teaching at my local church!

Super

By jb81854 - Oct 22 2019
Read more
My favorite place for deep but accessible scholarly thought on the Bible.

Listen to:

Cover image of The Naked Bible Podcast

The Naked Bible Podcast

Updated 2 days ago

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Biblical theology, stripped bare of denominational confessions and theological systems by exposing context.

Naked Bible 195: Is Christmas a Pagan Holiday?

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There is much discussion online at this time of year as to the presumed pagan origins of Christmas. December 25, we are told, was a date stolen from pagan worship, specifically from the festival of the “Birth of the Unconquered Sun” (Sol Invictus)? Should Christians have Christmas trees? Aren’t trees pagan objects of worship? How should Christians think about, and respond to, such questions? Do these questions have any relationship to the content of Scripture? Listen to find out.

Links and sources:

William Tighe, “Calculating Christmas: The Story Behind Dec 25” Touchstone Magazine (December, 2003)

Thomas J. Talley, The Origins of the Liturgical Year (The Liturgical Press, 1991)

Aaron Gleason, “How Christmas Baptizes Norse Mythology into Powerful Christian Archetypes,” The Federalist (December 15, 2017)

Origin of the names of the Days

Jewish month names from Babylon

Dec 25 2017

1hr 33mins

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Naked Bible 138: What Day was Jesus Born?

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On what day was Jesus actually born? What year? Does the timing matter? Christians celebrate the birth of Jesus on December 25, but virtually all Christians know that day isn’t the real birth date of the messiah. While that is certainly the case, has the birth date of Jesus been lost to time, or can it be reckoned. This episode of the podcast explores these questions and provides a solution draw from Scripture, backed by both Jewish messianic tradition and astronomy.

LOGOS 7 DISCOUNT: get 20% off a base package plus 5 books!

Dec 25 2016

1hr 39mins

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Naked Bible 285: Evil and Satan

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Evil and Satan with Dr. Archie Wright.

Many listeners will know that the New Testament teaching about Satan underwent a good deal of development during the centuries that followed the Old Testament era. Like many theological concepts that begin in some form in the Old Testament (e.g., sacred space, kingdom of God), the subject of God’s main adversary (among other adversaries) develops over the course of time in the literature sacred to both Jews and Christians. In this episode we talk about that development with Dr. Archie Wright, whose academic work focuses on Second Temple Judaism and Christian origins, particularly in regard to the forces and figures of supernatural evil.

Aug 18 2019

1hr 12mins

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Naked Bible 35: Acts 1:1-11

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Most Bible students would say this passage is about the ascension of Jesus to heaven. For sure that’s described, but the passage directs our attention to several points of biblical theology that are simultaneously tied to the OT and look forward to the events of Pentecost described in Acts 2. In other words, Luke isn’t just reporting the ascension—he’s framing the theological context for what he’ll be describing in his second book.

In this episode we’ll see how Acts 1:1-11 makes us think carefully about how the NT writers connected their thoughts to the OT. The passage raises questions about the kingdom of God and eschatology—specifically, whose eschatology are we talking about, and what is the kingdom of God?  Rather than filter the passage through theological systems to which we’ve been exposed, we need to allow the OT to guide our thinking about Jesus’ teaching and the events of his life—just like the NT authors did. Discussing these things in the context of the OT passages to which Luke alludes helps us see the beginning of an important biblical-theological motif: the “already but not yet” nature of God’s plan for reclaiming the nations and having a human family to rule and reign with him.

Feb 05 2015

40mins

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Naked Bible 241: Psalms 24 and 29 in Their Ancient Context

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The psalms are often thought of as purely devotional. They of course have that value, but they also contain significant theological statements, especially to ancient Israelites whose ears were tuned to specific points of their content. We often miss such things since we are not part of the ancient Israelite world, particularly in terms of the religious struggle with Canaanite religion and Baalism. In this episode we look at Psalms 24 and 29 for how religious texts from Ugarit help inform our reading. These two psalms contain several specific polemical points directed against Baal that modern readers would miss.

Nov 11 2018

1hr 15mins

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Naked Bible 254: Introducing the Book of Exodus

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This episode launches our new book study series on the book of Exodus! As we do with every book study, this initial episode overviews the sorts of things to expect as we progress through Exodus: difficulties, controversies, and other points of interest relevant to understanding the book in its own context. Specifically, Dr. Heiser talks about how we should think about Old Testament history, historicity, metanarrative, “mythic history,” and historiography.

Jan 12 2019

1hr 5mins

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Naked Bible 158: The Fate of the Ark of the Covenant

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The Ark of the Covenant is well-known because of the popular Indiana Jones movie, Raiders of the Lost Ark. That pop culture film offers just one of over a dozen theories on what happened to the Ark of the Covenant. The question arises because the ark is not one of the artifacts taken to Babylon by Nebuchadnezzar in the biblical account of the fall of Jerusalem and the destruction of the temple in 586 BC, nor is it listed among the temple treasures returned to Israel in Ezra 1, the account of the release of the captive Judeans. This episode surveys the more interesting and important theories as to the fate of the ark.

Sources:

John Day, “Whatever Happened to the Ark of the Covenant?” Temple and Worship in Biblical Israel (Journal for the Study of the Old Testament Supplement Series 422; Bloomsbury T&T Clark; Rev. Ed edition, 2007), 250-270

John Bimson, “Shoshenk and Shishak: A Case of Mistaken Identity?” Journal of the Ancient Chronology Forum 6 (1992/93): 19-32

Michael S. Heiser, “Moses as High Priest and Sorcerer? A Response to Graham Hancock’s

Egyptian Explanation for the Ark of the Covenant” Near East Archaeological Society Bulletin 39-40 (1995) 48-65

link referenced:
https://www.breakingisraelnews.com/85762/enigmatic-dead-sea-copper-scroll-reveals-true-locations-lost-temple-treasures/#7h3EPE5c8FKGOWQZ.97

May 14 2017

1hr 31mins

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Naked Bible 296: Exodus 25 Part 1

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Exodus 25 begins the book’s description of the Tabernacle and its furnishings. The most prominent item is the Ark of the Covenant (Exod 25:10-22). In this episode, we briefly discuss some of the preliminary comments about the Tabernacle (Exod 25:1-9) before turning our attention to the Ark’s nature and purposes.

Nov 03 2019

46mins

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Naked Bible 54: Acts 18-19

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Acts 18-19 introduce three people that become part of Paul’s ministry and the storyline of his missionary journeys: Aquila, Priscilla, and Apollos. This episode discusses some of the language in Luke’s description of how the testimonies of people who embraced Jesus outside the ministry of the apostles were authenticated by the laying on of hands and manifestations of the Spirit identical to the phenomenon of Pentecost.  Two incidents at Ephesus (the “sons of Sceva” encounter with a demon and the riot at Ephesus) are also discussed.

Jun 20 2015

1hr 6mins

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Naked Bible 175: Hebrews 1:1-4

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Hebrews 1:1-4 sets the tone for the entire epistle. The writer asserts that the revelation given by God through one particular son—Jesus Christ—is superior to Torah. It is Christ who is the full expression of God’s wisdom, and the actual, essential being of God Himself. Since the “inheritance” language of Heb 1:1-4 cannot suggest that God himself is being retired and succeeded, the language needs to be understood in terms of co-rulership. But why is this particular son (1:2) different than all others? This episode explores and expands on these themes and addresses this question by discussing the Old Testament context for the phrases, “the radiance of the glory of God,” Wisdom Christology, and hypostasis terminology.

Sep 02 2017

1hr 3mins

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Naked Bible 86: The Head Covering of 1 Corinthians 11:13-15

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This episode begins a series of topical episodes following the end of our series on Leviticus. The topic for this episode is the controversial head covering reference in 1 Cor. 11:13-15. The discussion summarizes the material discussed in a scholarly journal article published in 2004 by Dr. Troy Martin entitled, “Paul’s Argument from Nature for the Veil in 1 Cor. 11:13-15: A Testicle instead of a Head Covering” (Journal of Biblical Literature 123:1 [2004]: 75-84). Martin summarizes his approach as follows: “This article interprets Paul’s argument from nature in 1 Cor. 11:13-15 against the background of ancient physiology. The Greek and Roman medical texts provide useful information for interpreting not only Paul’s letters but also other NT texts.” The article (and the author’s subsequent responses to criticism, also published in academic literature) presents a compelling case and is, to Dr. Heiser’s knowledge, the only approach that provides a coherent explanation as to why the head covering warnings are important, in the words of Paul “because of the angels” (1 Cor. 11:10). This warning ultimately takes readers back to the incident with the Watchers (sons of God) in Gen. 6:1-4. One of Martin’s concluding application thoughts is also important: “Since the physiological conceptions of the body have changed, however, no physiological reason remains for continuing the practice of covering women’s heads in public worship, and many Christian communities reasonably abandon this practice.” In other words, Paul’s rationale for what he says here is no longer coherent today — but his teaching points are (modesty, sexual fidelity). As such, wearing veils (in church or elsewhere) is a conscience issue, not a point of doctrine.

The nature of this material is overtly sexual, so this episode is for adult listeners.

Papers referenced:
Paul’s argument from nature for the veil in 1 Corinthians 11.13-15: A Testicle instead of a Head Covering
Why Should Women Cover their Heads bc of the Angels

Feb 07 2016

58mins

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Naked Bible 166: Melchizedek Part 1a

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Melchizedek is one of the more enigmatic figures in the Bible. Mentioned in only two passages in the Old Testament (Gen 14:17-24; Psalm 110), he nevertheless drew a lot of attention during the Second Temple Period and the New Testament. Thousands of pages of scholarly research have been devoted to him. Nearly everything said about him produces interpretive problems, from the nature of his name, to its meaning, to his identity as a Canaanite (non-Israelite), to why Psalm 110 favors his priesthood about that of Aaron. This episode and the next (1b) of the podcast focuses on the Old Testament associated with Melchizedek. Later episodes will be devoted to how he was understood in Second Temple Judaism and the New Testament.

Resources:

“Melchizedek,” Dictionary of the Old Testament: Pentateuch (IVP)

“Melchizedek,” Dictionary of Deities and Demons in the Bible (Brill, Eerdmans)

Jul 09 2017

44mins

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Naked Bible 93: The Book of Enoch in the Early Church

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The book we know as 1 Enoch was well known to early Christians. Its importance produced an understandable question among some influential early Christian writers and, one may presume, Christians in general: Should 1 Enoch be considered inspired and thus “Scripture” in the manner of other books in the Old Testament? Ultimately, Christianity at large answered this question negatively, save for the Church in Ethiopia. But the discussion is nonetheless of interest today. This episode presents an abbreviated survey of how select Second Temple Jews and early Christian books and writers assessed the scriptural status of 1 Enoch.

Google Book referenced:
James C. VanderKam, “1 Enoch, Enochic Motifs, and Enoch in Early Christian Literature,” Pages 33-101 in James C. VanderKam and William Adler, eds., The Jewish Apocalyptic Heritage in Early Christianity (Compendia rerum iudaicarum ad Novum Testamentum 3/4; Minneapolis: Fortress Press, 1996).

paper referenced:
Nickelsburg Knowledge of Enoch and Watchers Story in Early Judaism and Christianity

Mar 29 2016

1hr 2mins

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Naked Bible 224: The Falling Away and the Restrainer

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2 Thessalonians 2:1-8 contains two enigmatic features. In the first four verses Paul takes on the false teaching, circulating in the Thessalonian church, that the Day of the Lord had already come to pass. In the process Paul tells the believers “Let no one deceive you in any way. For that day will not come, unless the apostasia comes first, and the man of lawlessness is revealed, the son of destruction.” It’s clear that the man of lawlessness is the antichrist, but what is the apostasia? Some translations render the Greek term “falling away,” but others have “rebellion”? Just what event is Paul talking that must occur before the revealing of the antichrist? Later in the chapter Paul mentions an impersonal “restraint” and a mysterious figure who is the “restrainer” that are holding back the events leading to the second coming. What or who could do that? This episode tackles both these difficulties.

Jul 14 2018

1hr 9mins

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Naked Bible 003: Baptism: Contradictions in Creeds Part 2

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Contradictions over baptism and salvation in creeds, continued (Part 2).

In the previous episode, we saw how the Belgic Confession was, in places, clear on its articulation of the doctrine of salvation by grace through faith alone. And yet when it discussed baptism, these ideas were muddled, creating theological confusion. This episode details more of the same, this time in the Heidelberg Catechism.

Jan 21 2015

18mins

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Naked Bible 159: Noah’s Nakedness, the Sin of Ham, and the Curse of Canaan

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The episode of Noah’s drunkenness in Genesis 9 has long befuddled interpreters. One of Noah’s sons, Ham, commits some heinous crime against his father. Oddly, though, Ham is not the one cursed by his father. Instead, Ham’s son Canaan bears the wrath of Noah. This episode explores the traditional solutions to the interpretive confusion and offers an alternative based on recent research in the Hebrew text.

Sources:

John Sietze Bergsma and Scott Walker Hahn, “Noah’s Nakedness and the Curse on Canaan,” Journal of Biblical Literature 124:1 (2005): 25-40

May 21 2017

48mins

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Naked Bible 226: Colossians 1:1-13

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We begin our study in the first chapter of Colossians with an eye toward some of Paul’s more important vocabulary. Why does he refer to the Colossian believers as “holy ones” (1:2)? What sort of “knowledge” (1:9) is he talking about?  What do the phrases “inheritance of the holy ones” and “domain of darkness” (1:12-13) mean in the context of Old Testament cosmic geography? Is the kingdom of God to which believers belong only future (1:13)?

Jul 28 2018

55mins

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Naked Bible 225: Introducing the Book of Colossians

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This episode opens our new book study on Colossians. Disputes over the book’s authorship and date contribute directly to the major content issue of the book—the nature of the “Colossian heresy.” The so-called “Colossian heresy” is the label used by scholars to describe Paul’s theological opposition in the city and church of Colossae. Elements of the false teaching Paul confronted are reminiscent of Gnosticism. However, the mature Gnostic theologies known to scholars today did not take shape until the second century A.D. and thereafter. Other items Paul addresses are obviously related to Jewish opposition. Could these two theologies be related?

Jul 21 2018

1hr 7mins

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Naked Bible 149: Q&A with Fern, Audrey, and Beth

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This episode follows episodes 68 and 120. Fern, Audrey, and Beth minister to trauma victims whose trauma has produced DID (Dissociative Identity Disorder) or involved Trauma-based Mind Control (TBMC).  If those terms and associated concepts are unfamiliar to you, then episode 68 is an essential precursor to this episode. This episode focuses on addressing listener questions about this ministry. What you’ll hear in this episode, however, isn’t a model for ministry. As you listen, do not assume you can take what’s said today, get the transcript, make a checklist, and do this sort of ministry. The episode discusses in some detail how the ministry of Fern, Audrey, and Beth differs from traditional deliverance ministry and why those differences matter.

Please support them by donating here.

Resources:
Project Bluebird Colin Ross

Mar 11 2017

1hr 18mins

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Naked Bible 36: Acts 1:12-26

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This episode focuses on the decision to replace Judas and restore the number of disciples to 12. There are several issues of interest:

  1. What was an apostle?
  2. What was the significance of the criteria for choosing the replacement for Judas?
  3. What are the OT connections to these criteria?
  4. What does the replacement of Judas tell us about how God works to further his kingdom?
  5. What was important about keeping the number 21 intact?

Feb 14 2015

41mins

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Naked Bible 301: Q&A 36 Part 2

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Dr. Heiser answers your questions.

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Dec 08 2019

1hr 5mins

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Naked Bible 300: Q&A 36 Part 1

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Dec 01 2019

1hr 5mins

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Naked Bible 299: ETS/SBL Conferences

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Dr. Heiser gives us a quick update on the 2019 ETS and SBL conferences.

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Nov 23 2019

32mins

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Naked Bible 298: Exodus 25 Part 3

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Exodus 25 is about more than the Ark of the Covenant, the subject of the previous two episodes. Exodus 25:23-40 provides God’s instructions to Moses about two other sacred objects: the Bread of the Presence (the so-called “Shewbread”) and the Golden Lampstand (Menorah). In this episode of the podcast, we examine those two objects as to their nature and meaning in Israelite worship and thought.

Nov 17 2019

1hr 11mins

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Naked Bible 297: Exodus 25 Part 2

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In Part of our discussion of Exodus 25, we focused on the nature and purposes of the Ark of the Covenant. Many scholars have noted similarities between the form and function of the Israelite Ark and other sacred objects of the ancient Near East. In this episode our focus is on the most transparent parallel, Egyptian palanquins (“sacred barks”).

Nov 10 2019

58mins

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Naked Bible 296: Exodus 25 Part 1

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Exodus 25 begins the book’s description of the Tabernacle and its furnishings. The most prominent item is the Ark of the Covenant (Exod 25:10-22). In this episode, we briefly discuss some of the preliminary comments about the Tabernacle (Exod 25:1-9) before turning our attention to the Ark’s nature and purposes.

Nov 03 2019

46mins

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Naked Bible 295: Exodus 24 Part 2

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In Part 1 of our study of Exodus 24 we looked at the covenant ratification ceremony (Exodus 24:1-8). This ceremony led up to the communal meal with Yahweh that is the centerpiece (vv. 9-11) of the rest of the chapter (Exodus 24:9-18). In this episode of the podcast we look at the interpretive difficulties and implications of beholding the God of Israel and celebrating his presence with a meal. How can anyone see God and live? Does this meal with God have precedent? Does it foreshadow any New Testament events and themes?

Oct 27 2019

52mins

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Naked Bible 294: Exodus 24 Part 1

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Exodus 24 is the culmination of the Sinai scene that began in Exodus 19. The first eight verses detail the covenant ratification ceremony. Burnt offerings and, significantly, peace offerings of fellowship, are sacrificed by the Israelites to certify their relationship with Yahweh and role as a kingdom of priests in his service. The ceremony is unusual in comparison with other Israelite rituals because of the way the blood is handled, how it is applied to the people, and the role of the 12 pillars (standing stones) that were part of the ritual. This episode of the podcast (Part 1 of Exodus 24) discusses the covenant ceremony, its meaning, and its implications leading up to the communal meal with Yahweh (vv. 9-11) that will be the focus of Part 2.

Oct 20 2019

45mins

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Naked Bible 293: Exodus 23:20-33

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This episode wraps up the remainder of Exodus 23 (vv. 20-33). There are a number of interesting items in these remaining verses, beginning with the Angel in whom the Name (the presence) of God dwelt. That figure is part of the Old Testament Godhead language behind ancient Judaism’s (former) theological teaching about two powers in heaven (two Yahweh figures) that Dr. Heiser discussed at length in his book, The Unseen Realm. Other issues touched on in this episode are the “hornets” of v. 28, the dimensions of the land and the terminology for its pre-Israelite inhabitants (vv. 30-33).

Oct 12 2019

1hr 5mins

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Naked Bible 292: Q&A 35

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Dr. Heiser answers your questions.

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Oct 06 2019

45mins

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Naked Bible 291: Exodus 21-23 Part 2

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This episode follows Part 1 of our brief exploration of the “Book of the Covenant”—the laws in Exodus 21-23 that follow the Ten Commandments. These laws are applications within ancient Israelite culture of the absolute, enduring principles expressed by the Ten Commandments. Part 1 dealt with why that is indeed the case. In this episode we offer commentary on select laws within the Book of the Covenant to show how they link back to the Ten Commandments.

Sep 29 2019

1hr 11mins

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Naked Bible 290: Exodus 21-23 Part 1

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Most listeners will know the Ten Commandments. They might even know that those commandments are in Exodus 20. But few will know that those famous commandments are followed in Exodus 21-23 by a litany of odd, ancient, at times conflicting, “case laws” that apply the Ten Commandments to Israelite life. Scholars have found these case laws difficult to understand. A number of them don’t reflect the Mosaic time period. They don’t seem to have any comprehensible relationship to each other. Nevertheless, they get a lot of attention because they form what scholars call “the Book of the Covenant” – the body of laws and case laws that are the basis for Israel’s covenant relationship with Yahweh. In this episode we explore the problems with Exodus 21-23 and get a foothold on where to start in understanding this portion of Exodus.

Sep 21 2019

1hr 12mins

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Naked Bible 289: Exodus 20 Part 3

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In the previous two parts of our discussion of Exodus 20, we talked about issues related to Decalogue and the first four of the Ten Commandments. In this episode we cover the remaining six commandments (honor your father and mother, do not murder, do not commit adultery, do not steal, do not bear false witness, and do not covet). It may come as a surprise, but some of these are hard to define and have biblical exceptions.

Sep 14 2019

1hr 19mins

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Naked Bible 288: Exodus 20 Part 2

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In the previous episode of the podcast we looked at the issues raised by close examination of the placement and nature of the Decalogue, the Ten Commandments. In this episode of the podcast, we take a look at the first four commands: having no gods before Yahweh, not making idols, not making the name of God inconsequential (“bearing the name in vain”), and remembering the Sabbath.

Article referenced:

Hallo, William W. “New Moons and Sabbaths: A Case-study in the Contrastive Approach.” Hebrew Union College Annual 48 (1977): 1-18

Sep 08 2019

1hr 19mins

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Naked Bible 287: Exodus 20 Part 1

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Exodus 20 is familiar to Bible readers for the Ten Commandments. Actually, only Exod 20:1-17 delineates those commands. The rest of the chapter resumes the Sinai theophany whose description began in Exodus 19. The “interruption” of that episode with the Decalogue is actually one of six issues discussed in this episode of the podcast—all preparatory to getting into the listed commands in future episodes. This episode deals with the unusual position of the Decalogue, the legal nature of the commandments, Jewish and Christian disagreement as to their number, the relationship of the Decalogue to ancient Near Eastern treaties, and the question as to why they were written on two tablets of stone.

Aug 31 2019

54mins

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Naked Bible 286: Exodus 19

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Exodus 19 begins with the short move of the Israelite community from Rephidim to Sinai. The chapter not only sets the stage for the Ten Commandments of Exodus 20, but the covenant ceremony of Exodus 24. This episode focuses on the preparations for receiving the law and entering into the covenant. Toward that end, we focus on the nature of the Sinai covenant, its relation to the earlier Abrahamic covenant, and the ultimate goal of the covenant, expressed in Exod 19:5-6.

Aug 25 2019

54mins

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Naked Bible 285: Evil and Satan

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Evil and Satan with Dr. Archie Wright.

Many listeners will know that the New Testament teaching about Satan underwent a good deal of development during the centuries that followed the Old Testament era. Like many theological concepts that begin in some form in the Old Testament (e.g., sacred space, kingdom of God), the subject of God’s main adversary (among other adversaries) develops over the course of time in the literature sacred to both Jews and Christians. In this episode we talk about that development with Dr. Archie Wright, whose academic work focuses on Second Temple Judaism and Christian origins, particularly in regard to the forces and figures of supernatural evil.

Aug 18 2019

1hr 12mins

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Naked Bible 284: Exodus 18

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This chapter of the book of Exodus features the idea of Jethro, Moses’ father-in-law- to appoint judges in Israel to help Moses render judgment on disputes within the community. There is some confusion about the relationship of these judges to elders in Israel. This episode discusses eldership in Israel and the relation of these judges to the elders. Earlier episodes of the podcast (#249 – Did the Israelites Believe Their Judges Were Gods?; #109 – John 10, Gods or Men?) cover how the passage is used by those who wish to deny divine plurality in Psalm 82 and other passages.

Elders in OT

Aug 11 2019

1hr 3mins

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Naked Bible 283: Exodus 17 Part 2

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Exodus 17:8-16 chronicles the battle between the Israelites and the Amalekites. The episode contains odd elements. So long as Moses’ arms were raised, Israel did well in battle. When they dropped, they did not. What is the point of this action? Why is there a reference to the “throne of Yahweh” associated with the altar built to commemorate the victory? And above all, why was Amalek cursed by Yahweh for elimination?

Aug 03 2019

1hr 21mins

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Naked Bible 282: Exodus 17 Part 1

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The first seven verses of Exodus 17 give readers the story of the water from the rock at Rephidim. The story is straightforward enough. Moses strikes the rock as God instructs him (Exod 17:6) and God provided water in the desert wilderness for the Israelites to drink. Moses calls the place “Massah and Meribah” (Exod 17:7) which produces the point of orientation for this episode, and sets up Part 2. The item that unites the two parts is that this incident (Massah and Meribah) is associated elsewhere in Scripture with Kadesh. Since the location of Kadesh is known, this incident is part of the problem of the location of Mount Sinai (especially for the Midian view) and links this incident to the failure with the giant clans from Numbers 13 (Part 2).

Jul 28 2019

1hr 3mins

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