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MinuteEarth

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Education
Science
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Science and stories about our awesome planet-- in just a few minutes!

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Science and stories about our awesome planet-- in just a few minutes!

iTunes Ratings

105 Ratings
Average Ratings
93
6
3
0
3

How to See Microbes From Space

By PRP3500 - Aug 17 2019
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No audio using “Podcast” on iPad. Works on You Tube.

Physics & earth

By Scm01 the master - Mar 18 2015
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I love minute earth and physics thanks for making them podcasts

iTunes Ratings

105 Ratings
Average Ratings
93
6
3
0
3

How to See Microbes From Space

By PRP3500 - Aug 17 2019
Read more
No audio using “Podcast” on iPad. Works on You Tube.

Physics & earth

By Scm01 the master - Mar 18 2015
Read more
I love minute earth and physics thanks for making them podcasts
Cover image of MinuteEarth

MinuteEarth

Latest release on Feb 12, 2020

The Best Episodes Ranked Using User Listens

Updated by OwlTail 1 day ago

Rank #1: Why Do Animals Eat Their Babies?

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Sometimes, it makes sense for critters across the animal kingdom to chow down on their own young. Thanks to http://www.audible.com/minuteearth for sponsoring this video. Thanks also to our supporters on https://www.patreon.com/MinuteEarth : - Maarten Bremer - Jeff Straathof - Tony Fadell - Muhammad Shifaz - Mark Roth - Melissa Vigil - Valentin - Alberto Bortoni _______ Credits (and Twitter handles): Script Writer: Rachel (@RA_Becks) Script Editor: Alex Reich (@alexhreich) Video Illustrator: Ever Salazar (@eversalazar) Video Director: Emily Elert (@eelert) Video Narrator: Emily Elert (@eelert) With Contributions From: Henry Reich, Kate Yoshida, Peter Reich, David Goldenberg Music by: Nathaniel Schroeder: http://www.soundcloud.com/drschroeder _______ Like our videos? Subscribe to MinuteEarth on YouTube: http://goo.gl/EpIDGd Support us on Patreon: https://goo.gl/ZVgLQZ Also, say hello on: Facebook: http://goo.gl/FpAvo6 Twitter: http://goo.gl/Y1aWVC And find us on itunes: https://goo.gl/sfwS6n _______ FYI: We try to leave jargon out of our videos, but if you want to learn more about this topic, here are some handy keywords to get your googling started: - Filial cannibalism: is a form of infanticide that occurs when an adult individual of a species consumes all or part of the young of its own species or immediate offspring. Species featured in this video: - Hamsters (Cricetinae family) - Assassin bug (Rhinocoris tristis) - Red Tailed Monkeys (Cercopithecus ascanius) - Long Tailed Skink (Eutropis longicaudata) - Egg-eating snake (Oligodon formosanus) - Sand goby (Pomatoschistus minutus) ______ References: Special thanks to Professor Hope Klug, from the University of Tennessee at Chattanooga, for help with research on this video! Day, C. S., & Galef, B. G. (1977). Pup cannibalism: One aspect of maternal behavior in golden hamsters. Journal of Comparative and Physiological Psychology, 91(5), 1179-1189. doi:10.1037/h0077386 Gilbert, W. M., Nolan, P. M., Stoehr, A. M., & Hill, G. E. (2005). Filial Cannibalism at a House Finch Nest. The Wilson Bulletin, 117(4), 413-415. doi:10.1676/04-003.1 Full text: http://www.jstor.org/stable/20060130?seq=1#pagescan_tab_contents Huang, W. (2008). Predation risk of whole-clutch filial cannibalism in a tropical skink with maternal care. Behavioral Ecology, 19(6), 1069-1074. Full text: http://beheco.oxfordjournals.org/content/19/6/1069.full#ref-1 Klug, H., & Bonsall, M. (2007). When to Care for, Abandon, or Eat Your Offspring: The Evolution of Parental Care and Filial Cannibalism. The American Naturalist, 170(6), 886-901. doi:10.1086/522936 Abstract: http://www.journals.uchicago.edu/doi/10.1086/522936#rf13 Klug, H., & Lindstrom, K. (2008). Hurry-up and hatch: Selective filial cannibalism of slower developing eggs. Biology Letters, 4(2), 160-162. doi:10.1098/rsbl.2007.0589 Abstract: http://rsbl.royalsocietypublishing.org/content/4/2/160 Why do some fish eat their own eggs? - Phys.org. (n.d.). Retrieved October 19, 2016, from http://phys.org/news/2016-02-fish-eggs.html

Oct 20 2016

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Rank #2: How Humans Made Malaria So Deadly

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Thanks to http://www.givewell.org/ for sponsoring this video! To learn more about the Against Malaria Foundation, visit: http://www.givewell.org/AMF or https://www.againstmalaria.com. Thanks also to our supporters on https://www.patreon.com/MinuteEarth ______ FYI: We try to leave jargon out of our videos, but if you want to learn more about this topic, here are some keywords to get your googling started: Malaria - a life-threatening disease caused by parasites that are transmitted to people through the bites of infected female Anopheles mosquitoes. Parasite - an organism that benefits by living in/on a host organism and deriving nutrients at the host's expense. Host - an organism in/on which another organism lives. Protozoa - a group of single-celled microscopic animals (not bacteria or viruses) that includes the Plasmodium species. Plasmodium - a genus of parasitic protozoa, many of which cause malaria in their hosts. Four species regularly infect humans: P. falciparum, P. vivax, P. malariae, & P. ovale. P. falciparum - the Plasmodium species that kills the most people, by causing malignant malaria, the most dangerous form of malaria. Anopheles gambiae - a ‘complex' of at least seven species of mosquitoes that are the main vectors of P. falciparum in sub-Saharan Africa. Species complex - a group of closely related species that look so similar that the boundaries between them are often unclear. Hunting and gathering - depending primarily on wild foods for subsistence Paleontology - the study of fossils and what fossils tell us about the past, about evolution, and about how humans fit into the world. ______ Credits (and Twitter handles): Script Writer: Alex Reich (@alexhreich) Script Editor: Emily Elert (@eelert) Video Illustrator: Qingyang Chen Video Director: Emily Elert (@eelert) Video Narrator: Kate Yoshida (@KateYoshida) With Contributions From: Henry Reich, Ever Salazar, Peter Reich, David Goldenberg Music by: Nathaniel Schroeder: http://www.soundcloud.com/drschroeder _______ Like our videos? Subscribe to MinuteEarth on YouTube: http://goo.gl/EpIDGd Support us on Patreon: https://goo.gl/ZVgLQZ Also, say hello on: Facebook: http://goo.gl/FpAvo6 Twitter: http://goo.gl/Y1aWVC And find us on itunes: https://goo.gl/sfwS6n _______ If you liked this week’s video, we think you might also like: Amazing animation of seasonal temperature suitability for malaria https://goo.gl/63pYGt Americapox CGPGrey video https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=JEYh5WACqEk The History of Malaria, an Ancient Disease http://www.cdc.gov/malaria/about/history/ ___________ References: Carter, R., & Mendis, K. N. (2002). Evolutionary and historical aspects of the burden of malaria. Clinical microbiology reviews, 15(4), 564-594. http://cmr.asm.org/content/15/4/564.full Gething, P. W., et al. (2011). A new world malaria map: Plasmodium falciparum endemicity in 2010. Malaria journal, 10(1), 1. http://malariajournal.biomedcentral.com/articles/10.1186/1475-2875-10-378 Gething, P. W., et al. (2011). Modelling the global constraints of temperature on transmission of Plasmodium falciparum and P. vivax. Parasites & Vectors, 4(1), 1. http://parasitesandvectors.biomedcentral.com/articles/10.1186/1756-3305-4-92 Hay, S. I., et al. (2004). The global distribution and population at risk of malaria: past, present, and future. The Lancet infectious diseases, 4(6), 327-336. https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC3145123/ Institute for Health Metrics and Evaluation (IHME). (2016). GBD Compare Data Visualization. Seattle, WA: IHME, University of Washington. Retrieved from http://vizhub.healthdata.org/gbd-compare. Liu, W., et al. (2010). Origin of the human malaria parasite Plasmodium falciparum in gorillas. Nature, 467(7314), 420-425. doi: 10.1038/nature09442 Malaria: Fact sheet (April 2016). Retrieved from http://www.who.int/mediacentre/factsheets/fs094/en/ Packard, R. M. (2007). The making of a tropical disease: a short history of malaria (pp. 1-66 ). Baltimore. Rich, S. M., et al. (2009). The origin of malignant malaria. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences, 106(35), 14902-14907. doi: 10.1073/pnas.0907740106 Shah, S. (2010). The Fever: how malaria has ruled humankind for 500,000 years (pp. 1-33). Macmillan. Sundararaman, S. A., et al. (2016). Genomes of cryptic chimpanzee Plasmodium species reveal key evolutionary events leading to human malaria. Nature communications, 7. DOI: 10.1038/ncomms11078 Webb, J. L. (2009). Humanity's burden: a global history of malaria (pp. 1-91). Cambridge: Cambridge University Press. World Health Organization. (2015). World malaria report 2015. World Health Organization. Retrieved from http://www.who.int/malaria/publications/world-malaria-report-2015/report/en/

Nov 29 2016

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Rank #3: Should We Grow Human Organs In Pigs?

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An amazing new technology will let scientists grow new kidneys for patients using their own stem cells inside of pigs. To start using Tab for a Cause, go to: http://tabforacause.org/r/minuteearth2 Thanks also to our supporters on https://www.patreon.com/MinuteEarth ______ FYI: We try to leave jargon out of our videos, but if you want to learn more about this topic, here are some keywords to get your googling started: Organ transplantation - surgically transferring an organ from one person into another. Xenotransplantation - transplanting organs between members of different species. Transplant rejection - when the organ recipient’s immune system destroys transplanted tissue. Pluripotent stem cells - embryonic cells that can give rise to all the different types of cells that make up the body. CRISPR - a genome editing tool that allows scientists to modify genes in living cells. ______ Credits (and Twitter handles): Script Writers: Rachel Becker (@Ra_Becks) & David Goldenberg (@dgoldenberg) Script Editor: Emily Elert (@eelert) Video Illustrator: Qingyang Chen Video Director: Kate Yoshida (@KateYoshida) Video Narrator: Kate Yoshida (@KateYoshida) With Contributions From: Henry Reich, Alex Reich, Ever Salazar, Peter Reich, David Goldenberg Music by: Nathaniel Schroeder: http://www.soundcloud.com/drschroeder _______ Like our videos? Subscribe to MinuteEarth on YouTube: http://goo.gl/EpIDGd Support us on Patreon: https://goo.gl/ZVgLQZ Also, say hello on: Facebook: http://goo.gl/FpAvo6 Twitter: http://goo.gl/Y1aWVC And find us on itunes: https://goo.gl/sfwS6n ______ References: Ross, P. (2016). Personal Communication Tushla, L. (2015). When a Transplant Fails. National Kidney Foundation. Retrieved from https://www.kidney.org/transplantation/transaction/TC/summer09/TCsm09TransplantFails Reardon, S. (2015) New life for pig-to-human transplants 527 (152-154). Retrieved from: http://www.nature.com/news/new-life-for-pig-to-human-transplants-1.18768 Nagashima, H., Matsunari, H. (2016). Growing human organs in pigs - A dream or reality? Theriogenology 86 (422-426). Retrieved from http://www.theriojournal.com/article/S0093-691X(16)30095-4/pdf

Jan 25 2017

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Rank #4: Null Island: The Busiest Place That Doesn't Exist

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Thanks to http://www.audible.com/minuteearth for sponsoring this video. Thanks also to Tom Scott for helping write and narrate this video. Check out his amazing channel: https://www.youtube.com/TomScottGo Thanks also to our supporters on https://www.patreon.com/MinuteEarth : - Today I Found Out - Maarten Bremer - Jeff Straathof - Mark Roth - Tony Fadell - Muhammad Shifaz - 靛蓝字幕组 - Melissa Vigil - Alberto Bortoni - Valentin - Antoine Coeur _______ Credits (and Twitter handles): Script Writer: Tom Scott (@tomscott) Script Editor: Henry Reich (@MinutePhysics) Video Illustrator: Ever Salazar (@eversalazar) Video Director: Emily Elert (@eelert) Video Narrator: Tom Scott (@tomscott) With Contributions From: Alex Reich, Kate Yoshida, Peter Reich, Rachel Becker, David Goldenberg Music by: Nathaniel Schroeder: http://www.soundcloud.com/drschroeder Image Credits: Photo of Null Island Buoy by: Jacques Grelet, IRD.fr _______ Like our videos? Subscribe to MinuteEarth on YouTube: http://goo.gl/EpIDGd Get early, exclusive access to our videos on Vessel: https://goo.gl/hgD1iJ Support us on Patreon: https://goo.gl/ZVgLQZ Also, say hello on: Facebook: http://goo.gl/FpAvo6 Twitter: http://goo.gl/Y1aWVC And find us on itunes: https://goo.gl/sfwS6n ___________ References: http://www.jsonline.com/news/statepolitics/clerks-scrambling-to-get-voters-in-right-districts-3v3ov36-137102098.html

Jul 07 2016

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Rank #5: Why Are Snakes So Creepy?

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Snakes occupy a special place in the human brain because they’re so weird.   Thanks to 23andMe for sponsoring this video! http://www.23andme.com/minuteearth   Thanks also to our supporters on ______   FYI: We try to leave jargon out of our videos, but if you want to learn more about this topic, here are some keywords to get your googling started: Ophidiophobia: The abnormal fear of snakes Lateral Undulation: Waves of lateral bending through the body that propel the snake forward. Trichromatic Vision: Three color receptors in the eye that allow the animal to see a wider spectrum of colors. Electroencephalogram: A non-invasive method of measuring electrical activity in the brain. ______   Credits (and Twitter handles): Script Writer: David Goldenberg (@dgoldenberg) Script Editor: Kate Yoshida (@KateYoshida) Video Illustrator: Qingyang Chen Video Director: Kate Yoshida (@KateYoshida) Video Narrator: Kate Yoshida (@KateYoshida) With Contributions From: Emily Elert, Henry Reich, Alex Reich, Ever Salazar, Peter Reich Music by: Nathaniel Schroeder:   _______   Like our videos? Subscribe to MinuteEarth on YouTube: Support us on Patreon:   Also, say hello on: Facebook: http://goo.gl/FpAvo6 Twitter: http://goo.gl/Y1aWVC   And find us on itunes:  https://goo.gl/sfwS6n _______   If you liked this week’s video, we think you might also like: Vsauce2 on Dragons and Snakes and Humans: https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=6grLJyqIM8E___________   References: Isbell, L. (2004). Snakes as agents of evolutionary change in primate brains. Journal of Human Evolution 51 (1-35). Retrieved from: https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/16545427LoBue, V., and DeLoache, J. (2008). Detecting the Snake in the Grass: Attention to Fear-Relevant Stimuli by Adults and Young Children. Psychological Science 19:3 (284-289). Retrieved from: https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/18315802Van Lea, W., Isbelle, L., Matsumotoa, J., Nguyen, J., Horia, E., Maiorc, R., Tomazc, R., Trana, A., Onoa, T., and Nishijoa, H. (2013) Pulvinar neurons reveal neurobiological evidence of past selection for rapid detection of snakes. PNAS 110:47 (19000-19005). Retrieved from: http://www.pnas.org/content/110/47/19000Kawai, N., and He, H. (2016). Breaking Snake Camouflage: Humans Detect Snakes More Accurately than Other Animals under Less Discernible Visual Conditions. PLoS ONE 11:10. Retrieved from: http://journals.plos.org/plosone/article?id=10.1371/journal.pone.0164342.

Mar 02 2017

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Rank #6: The Deadliest Ice Age Ever

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Mar 28 2016

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Rank #7: Should We Let Pandas Go Extinct?

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May 01 2015

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Rank #8: What Makes A Dinosaur?

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Thanks to 23andMe for sponsoring this video! http://www.23andme.com/minuteearth Due to a revolution in our understanding of the tree of life, birds are dinosaurs, while dimetrodons are not. Thanks also to our supporters on https://www.patreon.com/MinuteEarth ______ FYI: We try to leave jargon out of our videos, but if you want to learn more about this topic, here are some keywords to get your googling started: Systema Naturae: A 1735 book by Carl Linnaeus that outlined his hierarchical classification of animals. Plagiuri: an early,now disused, biological subclassification of fish used by Linnaeus that also included dolphins and whales. Anthropomorpha: a defunct taxon established by Linnaeus for genera Homo (humans), Simia (monkeys and apes in general) and Bradypus (sloths). Cladogram: A branching diagram showing the evolutionary relationship between species. Dimetrodon: An extinct carnivorous synapsid related to early mammals. Plesiosaur: An extinct marine reptile with a long neck related to modern snakes. Species featured in this video: Brown-throated sloth (Bradypus variegatus) Sperm Whale (Physeter macrocephalus) Atlantic salmon (Salmo salar) Flathead Grey Mullet (Mugil cephalus) ______ Credits (and Twitter handles): Script Writer: David Goldenberg (@dgoldenberg) Script Editor: Emily Elert (@eelert) Video Illustrator: Ever Salazar (@eversalazar) Video Director: Kate Yoshida (@KateYoshida) Video Narrator: Kate Yoshida (@KateYoshida) With Contributions From: Henry Reich, Alex Reich, Peter Reich Music by: Nathaniel Schroeder: http://www.soundcloud.com/drschroeder _______ Like our videos? Subscribe to MinuteEarth on YouTube: http://goo.gl/EpIDGd Support us on Patreon: https://goo.gl/ZVgLQZ Also, say hello on: Facebook: http://goo.gl/FpAvo6 Twitter: http://goo.gl/Y1aWVC And find us on itunes: https://goo.gl/sfwS6n _______ If you liked this week’s video, we think you might also like: After her great video on Dimetrodon https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=-tdVPiyVDsQ, The Brain Scoop’s Emily Graslie started a blog devoted to the dinosaur confusion in modern toys: http://isnotadinosaur.tumblr.com/. ___________ References: Angielczyk, K. (2009). Dimetrodon is not a Dinosaur: Using Tree Thinking to Understand the Ancient Relatives of Mammals and their Evolution. Evolution: Education and Outreach 2:257–271. Retrieved from: https://link.springer.com/article/10.1007/s12052-009-0117-4 Romero, A. (2012). When Whales Became Mammals: The Scientific Journey of Cetaceans From Fish to Mammals in the History of Science. New Approaches to the Study of Marine Mammals. Chapter 1. Retrieved from: http://www.intechopen.com/books/new-approaches-to-the-study-of-marine-mammals Switek, B. (2010). Why a Pterosaur is Not a Dinosaur. Smithsonian. Retrieved from: http://www.smithsonianmag.com/science-nature/why-a-pterosaur-is-not-a-dinosaur-87082921/

Mar 28 2017

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Rank #9: This Is Your Brain On Extreme Weather

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Feb 18 2015

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Rank #10: Why Are There Clouds?

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Apr 23 2015

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Rank #11: Why Don't Scavengers Get Sick?

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Mar 31 2015

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Rank #12: What Are Brain Waves?

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This video was sponsored by "Robot-Proof", written by Northeastern University's President, Joseph E. Aoun. Learn more here: https://goo.gl/uF5Kx8 Thank you to our supporters on https://www.patreon.com/MinuteEarth Even the parts of our brains that don't control physical movement show a lot of rhythm, and that might be integral to how our brains work. _______ To learn more, start your googling with these keywords: neural oscillation: better known as a "brainwave," a neural oscillation is repetitive, often rhythmic activity in the central nervous system. neurons can sync up with the help of pacemaker cells or structure, or through entrainment. entrainment: the ability of tons and tons of neurons to quickly sync up is due to something called entrainment – here's a cool demo of essentially how that works: https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=bl2aYFv_978 central pattern generator: neural networks that produce rhythmic, patterned electrical outputs. CPGs are usually relatively simple neural circuits and are responsible for virtually all the rhythmic motions you see in nature, from jellyfish swimming to human breathing. while we often think of our brains as reaction machines – like, we touch something hot and quickly pull away – central pattern generators don't need any stimulus to work. you can pull them out of an animal and put them in a petri dish and the neurons will still fire with the same rhythms. feature binding: when you see your cat and you know right away it's your cat...well, somehow, your brain is putting together all kinds of information about the object's shape, size, color, motion, position in your field of vision, and lots of other contextual clues to make that happen. neuroscientists call this "feature binding," and neural oscillations may be key to pulling it off. _______ Subscribe to MinuteEarth on YouTube: http://goo.gl/EpIDGd Support us on Patreon: https://goo.gl/ZVgLQZ And visit our website: https://www.minuteearth.com/ Say hello on Facebook: http://goo.gl/FpAvo6 And Twitter: http://goo.gl/Y1aWVC And download our videos on itunes: https://goo.gl/sfwS6n _______ Credits (and Twitter handles): Script Writer: Emily Elert (@eelert) Script Editor: Kate Yoshida (@KateYoshida) Video Illustrator: Ever Salazar (@eversalazar) Video Director: Emily Elert (@eelert) Video Narrator: Kate Yoshida (@KateYoshida) With Contributions From: Henry Reich, Alex Reich, Peter Reich, David Goldenberg Music by: Nathaniel Schroeder: http://www.soundcloud.com/drschroeder Image Credits: Snake Crawling - BigfootHD https://www.shutterstock.com/video/clip-2582720-stock-footage-snake-crawling.html Greyhound running - Objectivity https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=Iq_Oj6qzeIU Hummingbird - Smarter Every Day https://youtu.be/1VA8v1btKdQ?t=73 ______ References: Buzsaki, G. Personal Communication, October 2017. Buzsaki, G. (2006) Rhythms of the Brain. Retrieved from https://www.researchgate.net/profile/GyorgyBuzsaki/publication/223130267_Rhythms_of_The_Brain/links/00b4952bb0ae609ac9000000/Rhythms-of-The-Brain.pdf Cabron, J. Personal Communcation, October 2017. Engel, A.K. and Fries, P. and Singer, W. (2001) Dynamic predictions: Oscillations and synchrony in top–down processing. Nature Reviews Neuroscience, 2, pp 704-716. Retrieved from http://www.dankalia.com/science/neu127.pdf Getting, P.A. (1989) Emerging Principles Governing the Operation of Neural Networks. Annual Review of Neuroscience. Vol. 12:185-204 Llinas, R. Personal Communication, October 2017. Lisman, J. and Buzsaki, G. (2008) A Neural Coding Scheme Formed by the Combined Function of Gamma and Theta Oscillations. Schizophrenia Bulletin, Volume 34:5, pp 974–980. Retrieved from https://academic.oup.com/schizophreniabulletin/article/34/5/974/1881304 Lisman, J. Personal Communication, October 2017. Marder, E and Calabrese, R.L. (1996) Principles of rhythmic motor pattern generation. Physiological Reviews, 76(3), pp 687-717. Retrieved from https://pdfs.semanticscholar.org/1900/8ec50b0d0bcff24438c9a0eb57f9e33f7a85.pdf Marder, E. Personal Communication, October 2017. Singer, W. Personal Communication, October 2017.

Nov 07 2017

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Rank #13: Males vs. Females: Sexual Conflict

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Feb 18 2016

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Rank #14: How Fighting Wildfires Makes Them Worse

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Sep 27 2015

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Rank #15: Orchids: The Masters Of Lying, Cheating & Stealing

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Thanks to Curtin University and the University of Western Australia for sponsoring this video. Also, special thanks to Kingsley Dixon and the Orchid Specialist Group of the IUCN’s Species Survival Commission. __ If you want to learn more about this topic, here are some handy keywords to get your googling started: – Mycelium – Mycorrizhae: a fungus that grows in association with the roots of a plant in a symbiotic or mildly pathogenic relationship. – Mycoheterotroph: A plant that is completely reliant on fungus for all of its nutrition. – Sexual deception: A trick used by numerous orchid species of looking and/or smelling like female insects in order to draw male insects to their flowers (for pollination) – Food deception: Rather than offering pollinators real food rewards (such as nectar or pollen), some orchids merely mimic the looks and smells of other, nearby flowers that offer such rewards. – Pollinia: In most flowering plants, pollen is a powdery substance made up of tons of individual pollen grains. But orchids pack their grains into a couple of sticky sacks (pollinia) instead. – Epiphyte: A plant that grows harmlessly upon another plant. Lots of tropical orchids are epiphytes – Lithophyte: A plant that grows on rocks Species Featured in this video: - Phantom Orchid (Cephalanthera austiniae) - Bee orchid (Ophrys apifera) - Fly orchid (Ophrys insectifera) - Mirror orchid (Ophrys speculum) - Red Helleborine Orchid (Cephalanthera rubra) - Nettle-leaved bellflower (Campanula trachelium) - Hammer orchid (Drakaea glyptodon) - Wasp (Zaspilothynnus trilobatus) - Lady's slipper orchids (Cypripedium calceolus) - Dracula orchids (Dracula terborchii and Dracula andreettae) - Spider orchids (Genus Caladenia) - Cigar Orchid (Cyrtopodium punctatum) - Venus slipper (Paphiopedilum Maudiae) _ Credits (and Twitter handles): Script Writer: Peter Reich Script Editor: Emily Elert (@eelert) Video Illustrators: Omkar Bhagat (@TheCuriousEnggr) and Ever Salazar (@eversalazar) Video Director: Emily Elert (@eelert) Video Narrator: Emily Elert (@eelert) With Contributions From: Henry Reich, Alex Reich, Kate Yoshida, Rachel Becker and David Goldenberg Music by: Nathaniel Schroeder: Image Credits: Phantom Orchid - Miguel Vieira Ophrys apifera - Hans Hillewaert Ophrys insectifera - Bernd Haynold Ophrys speculum - Wikimedia user Esculapio Cephalanthera rubra and Campanula trachelium - Olivier Pichard Hammer Orchid Animation based on Photos by Rod Peakall Lady Slipper Orchid - Flickr user ladydragonflyherworld ___ References: Cameron DD, Johnson I, Read DJ, Leake JR. 2008. Giving and receiving: measuring the carbon cost of mycorrhizas in the green orchid, Goodyera repens. New Phytologist 180: 176–184. Cameron DD, Leake JR, Read DJ. 2006. Mutualistic mycorrhiza in orchids: evidence from plant-fungus carbon and nitrogen transfers in the green- leaved terrestrial orchid Goodyera repens. New Phytologist 171: 405–416. Cameron DD, Preiss K, Gebauer G, Read DJ. 2009. The chlorophyll containing orchid Corallorhiza trifida derives little carbon through photosynthesis. New Phytologist 183: 358–364. Givnish, T. J., Spalink, D., Ames, M., Lyon, S. P., Hunter, S. J., Zuluaga, A., . . . Cameron, K. M. (2015). Orchid phylogenomics and multiple drivers of their extraordinary diversification. Proceedings of the Royal Society B: Biological Sciences Proc. R. Soc. B, 282(1814), 20151553. doi:10.1098/rspb.2015.1553 Hopper, S. D., & Brown, A. P. (2007). A revision of Australia' s hammer orchids (Drakaea: Orchidaceae), with some field data on species-specific sexually deceived wasp pollinators. Aust. Systematic Bot. Australian Systematic Botany, 20(3), 252. Retrieved April 28, 2016, from . IUCN Red List of Threatened Species. online April 27, 2016. Koopowitz, H.. (1992). A STOCHASTIC MODEL FOR THE EXTINCTION OF TROPICAL ORCHIDS. Selbyana,13, 115–122. Retrieved from Mccormick, M. K., Taylor, D. L., Juhaszova, K., Burnett, R. K., Whigham, D. F., & O’Neill, J. P. (2012). Limitations on orchid recruitment: Not a simple picture. Molecular Ecology, 21(6), 1511-1523. doi:10.1111/j.1365-294x.2012.05468.x Merckx, V. and Freudenstein, J. V. (2010), Evolution of mycoheterotrophy in plants: a phylogenetic perspective. New Phytologist, 185: 605–609. Retrieved April 28, 2016, from ) Rasmussen, Hanne N., and Finn N. Rasmussen. "Orchid mycorrhiza: implications of a mycophagous life style." Oikos 118.3 (2009): 334-345.

May 16 2016

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Rank #16: How To Avoid The Next Atlantis

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Nov 04 2015

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Rank #17: Why Do We Only See One Side of the Moon?

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Feb 28 2015

2mins

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Rank #18: Why Farming is Broken

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Thanks to the Land Institute for sponsoring this video! To learn more about their work, visit https://landinstitute.org/ To feed everyone in the future, we may need to disrupt 10,000 years of farming practices and turn agriculture into a closed system. Thanks also to our supporters on https://www.patreon.com/MinuteEarth ______ To learn more, start your googling with these keywords: Annual plant: living for a year or less, perpetuating itself by seed Perennial plant: living for several years Polyculture: the simultaneous cultivation or exploitation of several crops or kinds of animals Natural systems agriculture: cropping systems based on processes found in nature Agroforestry: land use management that combines the cultivation of trees/shrubs with crops/pasture to create more productive and sustainable land-use systems Alley cropping: planting agricultural crops between rows of trees or shrubs ______ If you liked this week’s video, you might also like: Alley cropping: https://nac.unl.edu/documents/agroforestrynotes/an12ac01.pdf Agroforestry: http://www.fao.org/forestry/agroforestry/89997/en/ _______ Subscribe to MinuteEarth on YouTube: http://goo.gl/EpIDGd Support us on Patreon: https://goo.gl/ZVgLQZ And visit our website: https://www.minuteearth.com/ Say hello on Facebook: http://goo.gl/FpAvo6 And Twitter: http://goo.gl/Y1aWVC And download our videos on itunes: https://goo.gl/sfwS6n _______ Credits (and Twitter handles): Script Writer: Alex Reich (@alexhreich) Script Editor: Emily Elert (@eelert) Video Illustrator: Jesse Agar Video Director: Kate Yoshida (@KateYoshida) Video Narrator: Kate Yoshida (@KateYoshida) With Contributions From: Henry Reich, Ever Salazar, Peter Reich, David Goldenberg Music by: Nathaniel Schroeder: http://www.soundcloud.com/drschroeder ______ References: Baker, B. 2017. Can Modern Agriculture Be Sustainable? Perennial polyculture holds promise. BioScience, 67(4), 325-331. https://doi.org/10.1093/biosci/bix018 Crews, T. E. 2016. Closing the Gap between Grasslands and Grain Agriculture. Kan. JL & Pub. Pol'y, 26, 274. https://goo.gl/d7BGsb Dawson, C. J., & Hilton, J. 2011. Fertiliser availability in a resource-limited world: Production and recycling of nitrogen and phosphorus. Food Policy, 36, S14-S22. https://goo.gl/8dMuP1 Famiglietti, J. S. 2014. The global groundwater crisis. Nature Climate Change, 4(11), 945-948. http://aquadoc.typepad.com/files/jfamglobal_gw_crisis.pdf Kantar, M. B. et al. 2016. Perennial grain and oilseed crops. Annual review of plant biology, 67, 703-729. http://www.annualreviews.org/doi/abs/10.1146/annurev-arplant-043015-112311 Montgomery, D. R. (2007). Soil erosion and agricultural sustainability. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences, 104(33), 13268-13272. http://goo.gl/Si9E6g

Sep 27 2017

3mins

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Rank #19: How Cats Became our Feline Overlords (ft. It's Okay To Be Smart)

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Check out how cats became our favorite little murder machines. To learn how dogs and humans got together, watch the companion video over at It's OK To Be Smart: https://youtu.be/tggdERc8E6Y. Thanks also to our supporters on https://www.patreon.com/MinuteEarth ______ If you want to learn more about this topic, here are some keywords to get your googling started: Puma: The big cat with the largest home range. Felix silvestris: The wildcat that is the direct ancestor to all modern house cats. Bastet: Egyptian cat goddess. Pseudaelurus: A prehistoric cat that is the common ancestor to all modern felines. ______ Credits (and Twitter handles): Script Writer: Sarah Keartes Script Editor: Kate Yoshida (@KateYoshida) Video Illustrator: Qingyang Chen (@QCvisual) Video Director: Kate Yoshida (@KateYoshida) Video Narrator: Joe Hanson (@DrJoeHanson) With Contributions From: Ever Salazar, Henry Reich, Alex Reich, Peter Reich, David Goldenberg Music by: Nathaniel Schroeder: http://www.soundcloud.com/drschroeder _______ Like our videos? Subscribe to MinuteEarth on YouTube: http://goo.gl/EpIDGd Support us on Patreon: https://goo.gl/ZVgLQZ Also, say hello on: Facebook: http://goo.gl/FpAvo6 Twitter: http://goo.gl/Y1aWVC And find us on itunes: https://goo.gl/sfwS6n ___________ References: Hu, Yaowu, et al. ""Earliest evidence for commensal processes of cat domestication."" Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences 111.1 (2014): 116-120." Montague, Michael J., et al. ""Comparative analysis of the domestic cat genome reveals genetic signatures underlying feline biology and domestication."" Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences 111.48 (2014): 17230-17235. O’Brien, Stephen J., and Warren E. Johnson. The evolution of cats. Scientific American 297.1 (2007): 68-75. "The Lion in the Living Room"" - Abigail Tucker http://amzn.to/2ppLNxz (Public library: http://www.worldcat.org/oclc/956395842) Vigne, Jean-Denis, et al. Earliest “Domestic” Cats in China Identified as Leopard Cat (Prionailurus bengalensis). PloS one 11.1 (2016): e0147295. Human-cat burial image provided courtesy of Pr . Jean Guilaine excavations

Apr 12 2017

3mins

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Rank #20: How Mushrooms Make It Rain

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Feb 24 2016

1min

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