Civilization and Its Discontents is one of the best known works of Freuds. Its also one of his most comprehensive works as much of his theories were introduced and created before it. Thus it seems that in this work Freud isnt so much discovering anything new, instead his using his ideas and works to analyze a larger structure. What Freud analyzes in this work is not the mind of an individual but rather the "mind" of the culture. How does it work? How can it exist? Why can we live in such large communities? What is the psychological foundation of society? "We cannot see the necessity that forces culture along this path and gives rise to its antagonism to sexuality. It must be due to some disturbing influence not yet detected by us."
Think however you want about Sigmund Freud, theres no denial about the importance of he's input on the field of psychology. The interpretation of dreams was published in 1899 and although it didn't gain much attention at first, it eventually took off and is now probably the best known work of psychology. Sigmund Freud takes a dive into the world of dreams which he saw as the window to our unconsciousness, a pathway to get to the hiding part of ourselves. Freud seeks to understand how the unconsciousness express itself in dreams, how dreams should be analyzed and interpreted, what they tell to us and why do they need to be analyzed? Why the meaning needs to be hidden? "The interpretation of dreams is the royal road to a knowledge of the unconscious activities of the mind."
Podcast: The Jordan B. Peterson Podcast (LS 81 · TOP 0.01% what is this?)Episode: Sigmund Freud and the Dynamic UnconsciousPub date: 2020-11-22In this lecture, 9th in the 2017 personality series, Dr. Peterson discusses some of the essentials of Sigmund Freud's theories, concentrating on his conceptualizations of the dynamic (living) unconscious.-Thanks to our sponsors:Wondery"Hosted by Taraji P. Henson, Wondery (Dr. Death, Dirty John, The Shrink Next Door) and Universal Music Group present Jacked: Rise of the New Jack Sound. The story begins with a keyboard player in the heart of Harlem: Teddy Riley. Teddy’s entire world was music. Playing it. Composing it. Producing it. Teddy and his friend Timmy Gatling followed their dreams and started a revolution in the world of hip-hop and R&B.They crafted hit after hit, and were on top of the world. Their group’s quick rise to fame came with betrayals and broken friendships. Tensions within the band began to flare, and rivalries with other artists turned violent. As the stakes grew higher, their troubled manager pushed the group past their breaking point, with deadly results. Listen today at http://wondery.fm/Jacked_JBP"-For Advertising Inquiries, visit https://www.advertisecast.com/TheJordanBPetersonPodcast Learn more about your ad choices. Visit megaphone.fm/adchoicesThe podcast and artwork embedded on this page are from Dr. Jordan B. Peterson, which is the property of its owner and not affiliated with or endorsed by Listen Notes, Inc.
In honor of the Dr. Shari Valencic's birthday we're exploring one of her favorites Psychological Great Minds... it’s “A Toast” to Sigmund Freud. Cheers! Be sure to follow me on Facebook at "Drinks with Great Minds in History" & Follow me on Instagram and Twitter @dgmh_historypodcastHuge thanks to Podcorn for sponsoring this episode. Explore sponsorship opportunities and start monetizing your podcast by signing up here: https://podcorn.com/podcasters/Patreon Link - https://www.patreon.com/user?u=34398347&fan_landing=trueLooking to start your own podcast, but like me didn't know where to start? Buzzsprout has made this journey easy and fun! Follow the link to let Buzzsprout know DGMH sent you: https://www.buzzsprout.com/?referrer_id=933859 #drinkswith Cortes and the Boys!New Theme Music:Hall of the Mountain King by Kevin MacLeodLink: https://incompetech.filmmusic.io/song/3845-hall-of-the-mountain-kingLicense: http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0/Artwork by @Tali Rose... Check it out!Support the show (https://www.patreon.com/user?u=34398347&fan_landing=true)
Oedipus Rex - Episode #3- The Reveal, The Conclusion, Sigmund Freud, and how it all goes together!
How To Love Lit Podcast
Oedipus Rex - Episode #3- The Reveal, The Conclusion, Sigmund Freud, and how it all goes together! Hi, I’m Christy Shriver. I’m Garry Shriver, and this is the how to love lit podcast. Today we wrap up our discussion of what Aristotle calls the greatest of all plays. Of course, although I wouldn’t have said this a few years ago, I think this may be truer than even Aristotle knew. It’s amazing to think that a play so old and outdated in a stylistic sense could even be taken seriously today. There is no humor, there is no blood or gore even- all the good stuff happens off stage- no sex- no special effects- not even any profanity- all the things modern movie producers feel they must include to get anyone to watch their films. In fact, even the language is a stiff by today’s standards- there is no nuance in characterization- the characters are flat. The setting is basic. It’s a musical- and those are hard to pull off nowadays! So what makes this play “great”- what makes it so popular and what makes people still read it year after year? That’s the question we’re going to try to answer as we pick up where we left after after the third choral ode and take it to its very very tragic conclusion. Actually, Aristotle answers this question. In fact, he referenced this play 10 times in his essay Poetics and really truly loved it. The short answer is that he believed it elicits the greatest amount of catharsis. Last week we talked about that being emotional release of emotion- kind of like what happens in psychotherapy. But Aristotle is detailed about what emotions he’s talking about. He says that tragedy elicits pity and fear- and by pity- he doesn’t mean pity like we think of pity- you poor thing- like a pitiful stray kitten in the road= the word is pathos which we should think of more like empathy- or sympathy- we feel for him- we feel his pain- and this play elicists the most of that. Now, I’ve thought about that all week as we’ve been thinking about this podcast because at first I didn’t get it. No one really cries when they see this play- it’s way too stiff for that- but in some mysterious sense, I’ve come to agree with him- I believe it truly does- and I hope to be able to make that argument persuasively as we finish out discussing this play. So, back to Aristotle and catharsis, what makes people different from animals is our ability to see things from another person’s point of view and according to him- this is what art is about- seeing someone else’s view of the world and feeling for another person- when it’s sad that is really what tragedy is about- and feeling for Oedipus is what we should have in our minds as we read the ending of this play. The things that Oedipus has done is truly what I would suggest would be the worst than any person could ever do- especially if they are a good person. So, before we watch Oedipus learn the truth- think about what the Greeks (because this isn’t Sophocle’s story0 it’s much older than that- did when they created this character. They created a guy, a nice guy, a noble guy, who from his very birth had huge setbacks that were not his fault- his parents tried to kill him. He was saved from that, but obviously had a good soul. He was loved and he obviously loved his new parents. He’s not a perfect guy, he has ths issue of a temper, but a lot of us do. He is a bit impulsive, a lot of us are like that. He unwittedly gets in an altercation and kills a dude, presumably in his mind out of self-defense. But that’s okay because right after he saves an entire town. He loves his wife. He loves his children. He loves his community. And it is in this sense that we are Oedipus. Lots of us had setbacks as children- maybe we we’ren’t foundlings on mountains, but there is stuff in our childhood that we’ve had to overcome. And hopefully, no matter how far along in life you are, you have don’t quite a bit of work to overcome those deficits- of the fates- to use a Greek word. We are also like Oedipus in that we have personality issues. We have pride issues. If you are at all honest with yourself- you have stuff that you struggle with- but again, hopefully if you are the kind of person that is trying to be better and better- than hopefully things have gotten better for you. Maybe you haven’t saved a town- but you’ve done good things and helped people have better lives in some way. So- in both cases, Oedipus is the extreme of all of us. Now, have this in your mind, what if you found this out about yourself- is there anything more desguisting and horrible and cross than what is about to happen to him. So Garry, bring us up to speed what has happened since the play opened to where we are at the choral ode? Sure, well the play opened up with the people of Thebes coming to Oedipus and appealing to his greatness. Their city is suffering from a horrible plague and they need a hero- and he IS a hero. He saved them before from the Sphinx in their greatest time of need, and they are all that level of suffering again. Well, he’s sent his brother-in-law off to Delphi to see the oracle and the oracle has told him that the city is plagued with a person who has brought on a curse because he’s killed Laius the former king of Thebes. Oedipus hears this and vows he’s going to save the city no matter what, and he calls out all kinds of curses on the person who has brought this plague on himself. Just as soon as he says such a thing, an old blind prophet shows up. They have an argument, Oedipus makes him mad and Tiresias says, Fine- I wasn’t going to tell you, but you’ve made me mad- you’re the one that killed Laius. Oh, and the one who killed Laius married his mom and his kids are his brothers and sisters- now go figure it out. Obviously, this news isn’t received very well. Oedipus loses his temper and attacks his brother in law saying he’s trying to take over the country. All of this escalates until his wife, Jocasta, shows up. Oedipus tells her that Creon has accused him of murder by means of a prophet. Jocasta, in a effort to try to comfort Oedipus, tells him not to believe in prophets because they don’t know anything. She tells about a prophecy she received years ago that didn’t come true- the prophecy said that her other husband, Laius would be killed by his son, and that didn’t come true because he was killed by robbers at the junction in the road between Thebes, Delphi and Corinth. Oedipus, for the first time in their marriage, asks her what the other husband looked like- and if there were any witnesses to the crime. Apparently, there was one witness who ran away when Oedipus showed up into town. Oedipus decides to track down this guy. He also tells Jocasta a story of his own- a story about killing a guy right before he came into Thebes- the timing is not good, and Oedipus seems to get a little freaked out that this story may indeed have a chance at being true. We are interrupted again by another choral ode. This choral ode discusses the idea of whether or not we should believe prophecies- .and then we’re on to the third episode. Christy, what are we looking at. Well, that’s a complicated and ironic question- because looking and seeing is at the heart of what we’re supposed to be looking at and seeing- parumpa- it’s a pun!! And ironic!! Heehee And all of a sudden, the theater goer is getting ready to see unfold what Aristotle calls recognition and reversal- and one thing that Aristotle brings out about this play that he really admired is that it kind of happens very fast. Recognition or discovery or even revelation (some people call it that) is that idea that a revelation of some fact is going to come out and the protagonist is going to be able to see something clearly that he hasn’t been able to see before- in this story- it seems there are actually two. And it is this revelation that is going to lead to the downfall. And this is where this play gets psychologically interesting. It’s almost like the Greeks try to come up with the most awful thing they could conceive of that they could imagine ever happening to any person. Is there anything worse? Couldn’t you argue that mass murder is worse? That a horrible disease that kills you slowly is worse? Couldn’t there be any number of things that are worse? I don’t think so- and here’s why. Oedipus is a good guy. We’re supposed to identify with Oedipus- stick with me- not that we want to kill our dad and marry our mom. He didn’t want to do that either. If you consider yourself a good person you probably think like this, ‘I take care of my family. I love my kids. I help my neighbors. I try to do the right thing. I serve in some way my community- coach little league, if you’re American, serve in your church maybe- whatever people do in your cultural context for others they know or don’t know.’ Oedipus is all of those things and he’s better at it then we are. He freaking saved a city from the Sphinx. He’s been a king for a long time. He’s raised four children- everyone loves him. And yet…he killed a guy. True, but the Greeks are not going to judge him for that- not in this play. He viewed it as an act of self-defense- and although it was rash- and he probably shouldn’t have done it in retrospect in light of the oracle- the Greeks don’t really come down really hard on him for that. And he’s one more thing- here he is- he just got the first hint that he may be a grotesque human- and look at what he does- he runs toward finding out the truth. The man is interested in truth- that’s a noble thing- in any culture. When you read this play for this first time, at least when I read this play for this first time, I really thought it was about the sin of being too proud- Oedipus is too proud and the gods got him for it. But it’s really more about the sin, if you want to use that word, of not knowing. What is at the heart of this play is the ultimate sin of not knowing who you are. Not seeing. And, I guess that brings us back to the oracle of Apollo. One thing we could have said last week, but we saved it for today- if you go to Delphi, besides just the ruins, there is an archeological museum- and inside the museum are a lot of things they have been found and preserved from this incredibly historic site. One of the things that has miraculously survived all the wars and whatnot over the years are two stone inscriptions that were located at the entrance of Apollo’s temple. The first statement is ‘nothing too much’ which is worth thinking about but perhaps the more famous is an idea that seems to connect to this play, ‘know thyself”. You are exactly right-where Oedipus missed the mark that led to everything else- the challenge Apollo issues to him and what he failed at-. He didn’t know who he was. And when he uncovers it- he doesn’t like what he sees. Let’s go through his revelation…just briefly. Okay- well, the first thing that happens is the messenger comes from Corinth. And claims to bring “good news’ Yes- and now we’re back to dramatic irony- he thinks it’s good news, but we know it’s bad news.He’s congratulating Oedipus because his dad has died and he’s inherited Corinth. Jocasta is elated because now he can’t kill hi father, but Oedipus brings up the idea that yea- but I could still marry my mother. Which seems strange to say, but what is even more strange is this uber-famous line that Sigmund Freud is going to lift and basically use as the basis for his entire theory that we’re going to explain at the end of the episode- which is really crazy misunderstood because it’s not meant to be taken so literally but here’s the line and it comes out of the mouth of Jocasta; Don’t be afraid to marry your mother. Many a man before you, in dreams, has shared his mothers bed. But to live at ease one must attach no importance to such things. There you go- the Oedipus complex in a line. I look forward to hearing you explain that one. But back to this- this is where the Corinthian messenger again in has moment of irony when he reveal- that Oedipus is not the birth child of polybus and Merope but a foundling. He says, “I gave you to him.” He had been childless that is why he loved you. He goes on to say, I found you on mount citheron. He’s going to say, “I was your savior”. You had your ankles pinned together and I freed you. That’s where you get your name Oedipus- it means swollen foot, btw. Then he goes one step further- I got you from a shepherd who worked for Laius. You’d think at this point the jig would be up!! Well, it is for Jocasta- she knows. And starts to backpaddle and fast. We begin to see her say things like, stop talking- stop digging. You don’t need to know anything else. You’re done- trust me. True- and that’s why she’s not the hero. And it’s kind of why we don’t really feel pity and fear for her- not nearly what we’re going to feel for Oedipus. Oedipus is rash. He has a temper- both of those things are bad- but look at what is good. He truly wants to do the right thing. He wants to KNOW. He wants to get to the bottom- no matter what it costs him. There’s nobility in that= there’s a lot of us that would stop. We’d say- ugh- I’m okay for dropping out. Or we at least wonder- what would I do. I’d like to think I would do the right thing, but would I be strong enough? Jocasta sees it coming and does NOT want to pursue this. She is actually dogmatic, ‘I beg you- do not go on with this.” But Oedipus can’t help himself. It is his nature to press ahead- no matter what. I wouldn’t call it rashness at this point- but maybe it’s a good time to talk about what the Greeks call Hubris- because it may be that. Hubris, in the basic sense- is excessive pride or overconfidence. The Greek gods don’t like hubris because that’s when men don’t respect their place in the universe and challenge the universe in some way- try to beat the fates. And Oedipus did this- he tried to run from the prophecy- his arrogance probably led him to not investigate the past of Jocasta, or maybe even kill Laius- we don’t know what they got in a fight about- but I would assume ego was involved, but here his arrogance or confidence- won’t let him let it go. So onward he goes. “Nothing will move me. I will find out the whole truth”. It’s also his hubris that totally trashes ‘good advice” of yours is trying my patience.’ That’s a horrible thing to say to your wife. I’m not sure it’s worse than the last thing he said to her which is ironic too. He says, “One of you go and get that shepherd, bring him here. We will leave HER to pride herself on her royal birth.’ To which she responds, “Unforutnate! That is the only. Name I can call you by now. I shall not call your name again- ever!” And that is true. She leaves to kill herself. The shepherd comes in and we have what the full revelation and almost immediately what Aristotle calls peripeteia or reversal. Oedipus is going to experience a total collapse of his world unlike any of us could ever image. They will figure out together who he is. Who Jocasta is and who his father is. And then Oedipus utters these words, ‘o God! It has all come true. Light, let this be the last time I see you. I stand revealed- born in shame, married in shame, an unnatural murderer.” And we, as audience goers feel so sad. He leaves the stage for one more choral ode- the last one- read page 90- he falls not because he did something so bad that karma is getting him back. He just didn’t know- he didn’t know who he was. He didn’t know wht he was doing. But even in this there is irony- Thebes is being devastated and as his last act as king, he will leave the city and ironically save it once again from destruction. But his destruction is not just about himself. A messanger is going to walk in and tell him the audience that Jocasta has killed herself- so in a sense, Oedipus killed both his father and his mother. But not just that, he’s destroyed the lives of his children. No one is going to want to marry his daughters now. They are gross to the world. And then as one final act of rashness- because Oedipus is still Oedipus- he stabs his eyes out. And that is worth thinking about. It really is because in a sense it’s a noble thing to do- even though if he’d waited a couple of days, maybe he wouldn’t have done it.I do want to mention that the Greeks looked at suicide a little differently than the Romans. We saw in Julius Caesar that Romans kind of saw suicide as honorable if things got out of hand- like in Brutus’ case. However, the Greeks although were more sympathetic than we are today- did not actually see it necessarily as an act of nobility. If you look at the myths, women commit suicide way more than men- and it’s kind of a confession that you can’t handle what has been given you. You can’t handle your shame. And that is not Oedipus. Oedipus is strong. That’s true. That’s why he’s a hero. He can handle the truth- to quote Jack Nicholson. But…he doesn’t want to have to look at it. He doesn’t want to have to look at his children. The last thing his eyes look at is the dead body of his wife. And in a bloody scene that the audience does NOT see- he spears the pupils of his eyes- read page 93. There is blood everywhere- like some sort of internal purge and ultimate irony. At the moment he sees who he really is- He doesn’t want to see anything else in the world. And honestly, that is something every one who has ever had to look hard and fast inside themselves- has had to deal with. That’s what ptsd is about. When you look inside and see what is inside every single one of us- at that moment of extremity- we experience a blood-letting. And yet- this is not the end of the play- there are almost 200 more lines. And after looking at the darkness of his soul, and deciding to live in physical darkness for the rest of his life- we see that Oedipus truly is a good person. He doesn’t say woe is me. He doesn’t curse the gods. HE doesn’t blame Jocasta. Look what he does- he thinks about his children. Creon walks in and in a spirit of selflessness he thinks about. The town and asks to be banished- then he turns his thoughts to his children- page 103 – He’s a hero. It is cathartic- if you can’t feel that- you have no feelings. The final words of the play- scholars say were actually added later, but they do kind of sum of one more final challenge to stay humble and on guard- read page 108 Or in other words- you just don’t know what you don’t know until it’s all said and done…